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63 terms

Chapter 8 Joints

joints and body movements
STUDY
PLAY
amphiarthroses
typically allows a slight degree of movement
Synovial Joint
have a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrouding a joint
Suture
joint between most SKULL bones
Pivot
joint between the axis and atlas (synovial joint)
tendonitis
inflammation of tendon sheaths
Ball & Socket
hip joint (synovial)
Condyloid
joint between forearm bones and wrist
hyperextension
extension of a bone beyond normal anatomical position
Fiberous Joint
sutures (skull) are the most remembered examples
Hinge joint example
elbow (synovial) and interphalangeal joints (synovial)
Gliding joint example
intercarpal joints (synovial)
Pivot joint example
joint between the skull and vertebral column
Retraction
move structure interiorly or towards it beginning position
Articular Cartilage
hyaline cartilage covering that keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed; resilient
Ligaments, fibrous capsule and muscle tendons
resists tension placed on joints and helps prevent dislocation
Synovial fluid
lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces and keeps joints from overheating
Condyloid
joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones (synovial)
Plantar flexion
sole of foot pushes downward; pointing the toes
Cartilaginous Joint
type of joint in which cartilage connects the bony portions
Elbow, knee, and interphalangeal joints
example of a hinge joint
Abduction
moving a limb away from midline
Fiberous Joint
type of joint in which bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue
Inversion
sole of foot inward
synarthroses
Essentially immoveable joints
Circumduction
movements of flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction in the shape of a "cone" in space
sprain
joint injury where ligaments reinforcing the joint are stretched or torn
Dorsiflexion
up on heel of foot; toe towards shin
bursitis
inflammation of bursa usually caused by excessive stress or friction
Elevation
move body part upward
dislocation
occurs when bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity
synchondroses and symphysis
two types of cartilaginous joints
Flexion
decrease angle @ joint
Gliding
one body part slides past another
Pronation
turning the palm of the hand downward or posteriorly
Synovial Joint
include the hip, knee, and elbow joints
Protraction
move structure anteriorly
Rotation
turning movement of a bone around its long axis
Condyloid joint example
knuckles
hip and shoulder joints
example of a ball and socket joint
Supination
turning the palm of the hand upward or anteriorly
diathroses
freely moveable joint
Eversion
sole of foot outward
carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
example of a saddle joint
Joint between C1 and C2
example of a pivot joint
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
three structural classifications of joints
Adduction
moving a limb towards midline
bursae
flattened tiny sacs of fluid that are located near joints and help reduce friction
synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
three functional classifications of joints
synovial joint
only type of joint with a joint cavity present
sutures, sydesmoses, gomphosis
three types of fibrous joints
distal end of tibia and fibula
example of a syndesmoses joint
gomphosis
articulation of a tooth with its bony socket
synchondroses
a bar or plate of cartilage unites the bones and usually disappears (ossifies) with age
symphysis
articular surfaces covered with hyaline cartilage which fuses into a pad or plate of fibrocartilage; example: intervertebral joints
articular capsule
double layered capsule that encloses the synovial joint
fibrous capsule
tough, external part of the articular capsule; continuous with the periosteum of bone
synovial membrane
loose connective tissue that lines the fibrous capsule internally
tendon sheath
elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction
Extension
increase angle @ joint
articular surfaces, ligaments, muscle tone
factors that affect the stability of synovial joints
arthritis
inflammation or degeneration of the joints - most widespread and crippling disease in the US - over 100 different types
Depression
move body part downward
articulation
site where two bones meet