515 terms

AP Biology Chapters 1-20 (not including 14 &15)

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matter
anything takes up space and has mass
compound
substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
element
any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
trace elements
an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minimum amounts
atom
smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element
neutron
an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom
proton
a subatomic particle with single positive charge found in nucleus of an atom
electron
a subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus
isotopes
one of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass
valence electrons
the electrons in the outermost electron shell
chemical bonds
an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain compounds outer electron shells
covalent bonds
a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
polar covalent bonds
a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom. making one slightly negative and the other slightly positive
electronegativity
the attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
anion
a negatively charged ion
cation
an ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons
hydrogen bond
a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecules is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent in another bond
cohesion
the binding together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
adhesion
the attraction between different kinds of molecules
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
heat
total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. It is energy in most random form
temperature
a measure of the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting molecules average kinetic energy
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substance (liquid)
solvent
dissolving agent of a solution
solute
a substance that is dissolved in a solution
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
acid
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
base
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
hydrophilic
having an affinity to water
hydrophobic
having aversion to water tend to coalesce and form droplets of water
pH
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
buffers
A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
acid precipitation
Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6.
organic chemistry
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
hydrocarbons
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
isomers
One of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types are structural , geometric and enantiomers.
structural isomers
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
geometric isomers
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
enantiomers
Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
functional groups
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
hydroxyl groups
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
carbonyl groups
A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
aldehyde
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
ketone
An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
carboxyl group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
amino group
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.
sulfhydryl group
A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (—SH).
phosphate group
A functional group important in energy transfer.
macromolecule
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
condensation reaction
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
hydrolysis
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.
carbohydrates
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
monosaccharides
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O.
disaccharides
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
cellulose
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.
fatty acid
A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
phospholipids
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
cholesterol
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
steroids
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
polysaccharides
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
glycosidic linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
fat
constructed from glycerol and fatty acids
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
protein
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
peptide bond
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction
beta (B) pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
denaturation
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
RNA
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
nucleic acid
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
purines
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.
pyrimidines
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
organelles
One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
electron microscope
A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cell surfaces.
cell fractionation
The disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation.
ultra centrifuges
A machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate liquids and particles of different densities.
cytosol
The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
nucleoid
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
cytoplasm
The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
nucleus
(1) An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.
nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing,exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
food vacuoles
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
contractile vacuoles
A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
plastids
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
tonoplast
A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the cell sap
mitochondria
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
chloroplasts
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
cristae
(plural, cristae) An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
grana
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
cytoskeleton
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
centrosome
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
flagella
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
cell wall
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid and is the primary constituent of wood.
extracellular matrix
The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
collagen
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
chromosomes
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
nucleolus
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
ribosomes
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits
smooth ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
Rough ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
glycoproteins
A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.
golgi apparatus
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
transport vesicles
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
lysosomes
A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
phagocytosis
A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.
selective permeability
(the ability to allow some sub. to cross the plasma membrane more easily) A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
fluid mosaic model
The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
integral proteins
Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
peripheral proteins
Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
diffusion
The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
concentration gradient
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
passive transport
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
hypertonic
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.
hypotonic
In comparing two solutions, the one with a lower solute concentration.
isotonic
Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
osmoregulation
The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
osmosis
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
turgid
Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.
flaccid
Limp. Walled cells are limp in isotonic surroundings, where there is no tendency for water to enter.
plasmolysis
A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment
facilitated diffusion
The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients
aquaporins
(water channel proteins that facilitate the amount of diffusion)A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
gated channels
A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
active transport
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
sodium potassium pump
A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
electrochemical gradient
The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.
proton pump
An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consumes ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell and, in the process, generates a membrane potential
cotransport
The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
exocytosis
The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
endocytosis
The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.
phagocytosis
A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.
pinocytosis
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
ligands
A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
receptor mediated endocytosis
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
electrogenic pump
An ion transport protein generating voltage across the membrane.
nucleus
chromatin, nucleolus, nuclear envelope--> directs protein synthesis by synthesizing RNA (mRNA) and sending it to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores-->the mRNA is made according to instruction provided by DNA --> mRNA reaches cytoplasm ribosomes translate the genetic message into polypeptide
chromatin
organization of DNA and proteins into fibrous material
nucleolus
specialized structure in special type of RNA, ribosomal RNA, is synthesized + assembled w/ proteins imported from cytoplasm into main components of ribsomal subunits which pass nuclear portes to cytoplasm where they combine to form ribosomes
nuclear envelope
double membrane perforated by pores which regulate entry and exit of certain macromolecules and particles
ribosomes
use info, from the DNA to make proteins and carry out protein synthesis
free ribosomes
suspended in cytosol which will function in cytosol (ex:enzymes)
bound ribosomes
attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)
endoplasmic reticulum
network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
smooth ER
synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells) involves adding hydroxyl groups to drugs to make soluble and easier to flush from body
rough ER
sythesis of secretory proteins (glycoproteins) specialized cells secrete proteins produced by rough ER ribosomes and membrane production
golgi apparatus
center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping products are usually modified during their transit from the cis pole to the trans pole
cis face
golgi appartus--> usually located near the ER a vesicle that buds from the ER will add its membrane and the contents of its lumen,cavity, to this face
trans face
golgi apparatus--> gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites
lysosomes
digestive compartments (macromolecules) carry out intracellular digestion . Use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material (autophagy)
mitochondria
sites of cellular respiration the catbolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats + other fuels w/ oxygens help
chloroplast
sites of photosynthesis. convert solar energy--> chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 and H20
peroxisomes
generate and degrade H2O2 in performing various metabolic functions transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen and they produce H2O2. Use O to break fatty acids that can be sent to mitochondria
cytoskeleton
organizing the structures and activities of cells
microtubules
maintenance of cell shape (compression resisting girders) cell motility organelle and chromosome movement
microfilaments
actin (tension bearing elements ) muscle contraction
intermediate filaments
anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
centrosomes
region where cells microtubules are initiated
centrioles
composed of nine sets of triplet microtubule arrange in a ring
ECM
function in support, adhesion, movement, and regulation (glycoproteins) collagen most abundant in animal cells
tight junctions
membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused forming continuous belts around cell to prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
desmosome
function like rivets fastening cells together into strong sheets Intermediate filaments reinforce this
gap junctions
provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells
amphipathic molecules
Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophobic regions and hydrophilic regions <phospholipids>.
fluid mosaic model
The arrangement of phospholipids and proteins in biological membranes is described by the
freeze-fracture
splits a membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. When a freeze-fracture preparation is viewed with an electron microscope, protein particles are interspersed in a smooth matrix, supporting the fluid mosaic model.
Peripheral proteins
are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all. Instead, the are loosely bound to the surface of the protein, often connected to integral proteins
Integral proteins
penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer, often completely spanning the membrane (as transmembrane proteins).
functions of the proteins
1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells. 2. Enzymatic activity, sometimes catalyzing one of a number of steps of a metabolic pathway 3. Signal transduction, relaying hormonal messages to the cell. 4. Cell-cell recognition, allowing other proteins to attach two adjacent cells together 5. Intercellular joining of adjacent cells with gap or tight junctions 6. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, maintaining cell shape and stabilizing the location of certain membrane proteins.
Cell-cell recognition
the ability of a cell to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another is crucial to the functioning of an organism carbohydrates are important for this
transport proteins
span the membrane 1. channel proteins which have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane (aquaporins facilitate the passage of water through the membrane) 2. carrier proteins bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane
diffusion
the tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules
passive transport
the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane because it require no energy from the cell to make it happen - the concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives fusion
concentration gradient
an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area -->substances tend to move form where there are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
osmosis
the passive transport of water; diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; the direction of osmosis is determined only by a difference in total solute concentration ; the kind of solutes in the solution do not matter
facilitated diffusion
the passive movement of molecules down their concentration gradient via transport proteins
gated channels
many ion channels function as gated channels these channels open or close depending on the presence or absence of a chemical or physical stimulus
active transport
uses energy to move solutes against their gradients; requires the cell to expend metabolic energy; enables a cell to maintain its internal concentrations of small molecules that would otherwise diffuse across he membrane ; ATP supplies the energy for active transport
ATP
ATP can power active transport by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the transport protein. This may induce a conformation change in the transport proteins translocating the solute across the membrane
sodium potassium pump
actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. the sodium potassium pump maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in
voltage
electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges
membrane potential
voltage across a membrane. ranges from -50 to -200 millivolts. inside of cell negative compared to the outside
electrochemical gradient
drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 1. chemical force based on an ions concentration gradient. 2. the other is an electrical force based on the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement ion diffuses down its electrochemical gradient
electrogenic pumps
special transport proteins that generate the voltage gradient across a membrane an example is the Na+-K+ pump restores the electrochemical gradient not only by the active transport of Na+ and K+ setting up a concentration gradien but because it pumps 2 K+ for every 3 Na+ setting up a voltage across membrane
proton pump
in plants bacteria and fungi it is the major electrogenic pump actively transporting H+ out of the cell
cotransport
a single ATP powered pump that transports one solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in this mechanism as the solute that has been actively transported diffuses back passively through a transport protein its movement can be coupled with the active transport of another substance against its concentration gradient
phagocytosis
the cell engulfs a particle by extending psedopodia around it and packaging it in a large vacuole
pinocytosis
a cell creates a vesicle around a droplet of extracellular fluid
thermodynamics
(1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.
1st law of thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
2nd law of thermodynamics
The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat, and in spontaneous reactions, the free energy of the system also decreases.
entropy
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
free energy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
exergonic reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
endergonic reaction
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
ATP
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
energy coupling
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
phospholipid
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
catalyst
A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
activation energy
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.
substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works
competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
noncompetitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
active site
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
induced fit
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
cofactor
Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
coenzyme
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function in important metabolic reactions.
allosteric site
A specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site.
feedback inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
fermentation
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
cellular respiration
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
redox reactions
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
oxidation
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
reduction
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
reducing agent
The electron donor in a redox reaction.
oxidizing agent
The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
NaD+
a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
glycolysis
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration
krebs Cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Acetyl CoA
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
Cytochrome
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
ATP synthase
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. Provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
proton motive force
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
aerobic
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
anaerobic
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
alcohol fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
lactid acid fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
faculative anaerobes
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
beta oxidation
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.
autotrophs
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
heterotrophs
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
chlorophyll
A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
light reactions
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
calvin cycle
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
NADP+
An acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
photophosphorylation
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
wavelength
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
electromagnetic spectrum
The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
visible light
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
photon
A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy.
spectrophotometer
An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
absorption spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
chlorophyll A
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
chlorophyll B
A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
action spectrum
A profile of the relative performance of different wavelengths of light.
carotenoids
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
reaction center
The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron, excited by light energy, to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
primary electron acceptor
A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule; it accepts an electron from the chlorophyll a molecule.
photosystem I
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
photosystem II
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.
noncyclic electron flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The net electron flow is from water to NADP+.
bundle sheath cell
A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
mesophyll cell
A loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
CAM
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
noncyclic phosphorylation
The production of ATP by noncyclic electron flow.
cyclic electron flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen
cyclic photophosphorylation
The generation of ATP by cyclic electron flow.
rubisco
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
C3 plants
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
photorespiration
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
C4 plants
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
cell division
reproduction of cells
cell cycle
sequence of events in the life of a cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two composed of M, G1, S, and G2 phases
genome
complete complement of organisms genes; genetic material
chromosomes
gene carrying structure found in nucleus- consists of 1 very long DNA molecules and associated proteins
somatic cells
any cell in multicellular organism except an egg or sperm
gametes
sex cells (haploid cells; egg or sperm) unite to form a diploid zygote
chromatin
complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome
sister chromatids
replicated forms of chromosomes joined together by the centromere and separated during mitosis and meiosis II
centromere
centralized region that joins the two sister chromatids
mitosis
nuclear division process; prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophse
cytokenisis
the division of the cytoplasm to form two seperate daughter cells after mitosis
meiosis
a two stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organims that results in cells with half the chromosomes number of the original cells
mitotoic phase
phase of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokenisis
interphase
period when cell cycle when cell is not dividing- cell metabolic activity is high, chromsomes and organelles are duplicated and cell size may increase. 90% of cell cycle
G1 phase
first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase, after DNA synthesis occurs
G2 phase
the second growth face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
S phase
synthesis phase of cell cycle; portion of interphase which DNA is replicated
prophase
the first subphase of mitosis in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form but the nucleolus and nucleus are still in intact
cell plate
a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokenisis
prometaphase
The second subphase of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
metaphase
3rd subphase in mitosis; spindle is complete and the chromosomes attached to microtubules at their kinetochores are aligned at he metaphase plate
anaphase
fourth subphase of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
telophase
the fifth and final subphase of mitosis in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokenisis actually begins
mitotic spindle
an assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
kinetochore
a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
binary fission
prokaryotes cell division . Each daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome
cleavage
cytokenisis process; pinching of the plasma membrane; the succession of rapid cell division without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cell
cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of molecultes in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
G0 phase
a non dividing face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
cyclin
a regularity protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically
growth factor
a protein that must be present in the extracellular environment for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells
density dependent inhibitor
any factor that has a greater impact on a population as the population increases
transformation
the conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.
tumor
a mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue, caused by the uncontrolled growth of a transformed cell
benign tumor
a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
malignant tumor
cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair function of one or more organs
metastasis
the spread of cancer to locations distant form original site
genes
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
heredity
The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
variation
Differences between members of the same species.
genetics
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
asexual reproduction
A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts.
sexual reproduction
A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
clone
(1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual. (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell. See also gene cloning.
life cycle
The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
somatic cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
karyotype
A method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type.
homologous chromosomes
Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
sex chromosomes
One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
gametes
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
haploid cells
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
fertilization
The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
diploid cells
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
meiosis
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
sporophyte
The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
gametophyte
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
synapsis
The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
tetrad
A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis.
chiasmata
The X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis.
cystic fibrosis
A genetic disorder that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
sickle cell anemia
A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
transformation
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage. See phage.
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
origins replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
leading strand
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' 3' direction.
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
DNA ligase
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 39 end of a new DNA fragment to the 59 end of a growing chain.
primer
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
helicase
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
nuclease
A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
mismatch repair
The cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
telomeres
The protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome. Specifically, the tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of the chromosome's DNA molecule. See also repetitive DNA.
transcription
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
mRNA
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
translation
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids
primary transcript
An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA.
triplet code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
template strand
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
transcription unit
unit, a region of a DNA molecule that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
RNA splicing
The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
introns
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
exons
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.
spliceosome
A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron, and joining the two adjacent exons.
ribosomes
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
transfer RNA
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
insertion
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
deletion
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
mutagens
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
capsid
The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complete in shape.
A site
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The A site holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain. (A stands for aminoacyl tRNA.)
Alternative RNA Splicing
A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
An enzyme that joins each amino acid to the correct tRNA
anticodon
A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
base-pair substitution
A type of point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
deletion
1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
domain
1) A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. (2) An independently folding part of a protein.
E site
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The E site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome. (E stands for exit.)
exon
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns
frameshift mutation
A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
insertion
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
intron
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
missense mutation
The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
mutation
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
nonsense mutation
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
The premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide.
P site
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The P site holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain. (P stands for peptidyl tRNA
point mutation
A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair
poly-A tail
The modified end of the 3' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides.
polyribosome (polysome)
An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule
primary transcript
An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA
reading frame
The way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons
ribosome
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
ribozyme
An enzymatic RNA molecule that catalyzes reactions during RNA splicing.
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
RNA processing
Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus, a process unique to eukaryotes.
RNA splicing
The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
signal peptide
A stretch of amino acids on a polypeptide that targets the protein to a specific destination in a eukaryotic cell.
signal-recognition particle (SRP)
A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome.
spliceosome
A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.
TATA box
A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
template strand
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
terminator
In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene.
transcription
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
transcription factor
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes.
transcription initiation complex
The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter.
transcription unit
A region of a DNA molecule that is transcribed into an RNA molecule.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
translation
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of languagefrom nucleotides to amino acids
triplet code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
wobble
A violation of the base-pairing rules in that the third nucleotide (5' end) of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon.
activator
a protein that binds to DNA and stimulates atranscription of a specific gene
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
disease caused by HIV
bacteriophage
viruses that infect bacteria
capsid
protein shell enclosing the viral genome
conjugation
the direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined
corepressor
a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
small organic moleule that accumulates in E. coli when glucose is scarce and binds to a regulatory protein, leading to the production of lactose-utilizing enzymes
episome
a genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome
F factor
a special piece of DNA that results in the ability to form sex pili and odnate DNA during conjugation
F plasmid
plasmid form of the F factor, consists of about 25 genes, most of which required are required for the production of sex pili
HIV
the retrovirus that causes AIDS
host range
the limited range of hosts cells each type of virus can infect
inducer
a specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon
insertion sequence
simplest transposable elements that exist only in bacteria; contains a single gene that codes for transposase, an enzyme that catalyzes transposition
lysogenic cycle
a phage reproductive cycle that replicates the phage genome without destroying the host
lytic cycle
a phage reproductive cycle that culminates in death of the host cell
nucleoid
dense region of DNA in prokaryotic cells
operator
segment of DNA, controls the access of RNA polymerase to the genes
operon
a unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages consituted by the operator, the promoter, and the genes they control
phage
same as bacteriophage
plasmid
small, circular, self-replicating DNA molecule separate from the bacterial chormosome
prion
infectious protein that may increase in number by converting related proteins to more prions; they appear to cause a number of degerative brain diseases in various animal species
prophage
viral DNA that's integrated into the bacterial chromosome during a lysogenic cycle
provirus
integrated viral DNA in the host cell that never leaves the host's genome
R plasmid
plasmid that carries genes resistant to certain antibiotics
regulatory gene
a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes (ie. the trp repressor); they're expressed continuously, although at a low rate
alternative RNA splicing
example of regulation in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depeding on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
cell differentiation
the process during development of a multicellular organism when its cells undergo a process of specialization in form and function
chromatin
DNA-protein complex
control element
segments of noncoding DNa that help regulate transcription by binding certain proteins
differential gene expression
the expression of different genes by cells with the same genome
enhancer
DNA segment containing multiple control elements that may be located far away from the gene it regulates
epigenetic inheritance
inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence
euchromatin
the more open, unraveled form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription
genomic imprinting
where methylation permanently regulates expression of either the maternal or paternal allele of certain genes at the start of development
heterochromatin
nontranscribed eukaryotic chromatin that is so highly compacted that it's visible with a light microscope during interphase
histone
small protein with a high proportion of positively charged amino acids that binds to the negatively charged DNA and plays a key role in its chromatin structure
histone acetylation
when acetyl groups are attached to positively charged lysines in histone tails
microRNA (miRNA)
small single-stranded RNa molecules that can bind to complementary sequences in mRNA molecules to block expression of specific mRNA molecules
multigene family
collection of identical or very similar genes
nucleosome
the basic unit of DNA packing, consists of DNA wound around a protein core
oncogene
cancer causing gene in certain retroviruses
p53 gene
codes for the p53 protein that functions as an activator for several genes, including suicide genes
proteasome
giant protein complexes that recognize the ubiquitin-tagged protein molecules and degrade them
proto-oncogens
normal cullar genes that code for proteins that stimulate normal cell growth and division
pseudogene
nonfunctional nucleotide sequences similar to the functional genes found in the goblin gene family clusters
ras gene
codes for the Ras protein, a G protein that relays a signal from a growth factor receptor on the plasma membrane to a cascade of protein kinases; mutations in ras occur in about 30% of human cancers
repetitive DNA
nucleotide sequences, usually noncoding, that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome; the repeated units may be short and arranged tandemly (in series) or long and dispersed in the genome
repressor
specific transcription factors that inhibit expression of a particular gene
retrotransposon
Eukaryotic transposable elements that move by means of an RNA intermediate
RNA interference (RNAi)
the experiemtnal phenomenon that injecting double-stranded RNA molecules into a cell somehow turned off a gene with the same sequence
small interfering RNA (siRNA)
RNAs of similar size and function as miRNAs, responsible for RNA interference
transcription factor
proteins that assist eukaryotic RNA polymerase in the initiation of transcription
transposon
eukaryotic transposable elements that move within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate
tumor-supressor gene
genes whose normal products inhibit cell division, help prevent uncontrolled cell growth
bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)
an articial versin of a bacterial chromosome that can carry inserts of 100,000 to 500,000 base pairs
biotechnology
the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
cDNA library
a limited gene library using cDNA; includes only the genes that were transcribed in the cells examined
clone
an individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual
cloning vector
a DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a cell and replicate there
complementary DNA (cDNA)
a DNA molecule made in vitro using mRNa as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase; corresponds to a gene, but lacks the introns present in the DNA of the genome
denaturation
the separation of the two strands of DNA
DNA fingerprint
specific pattern of bands
DNA ligase
enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds that close up the sugar-phosphate backbones and make permanent the associations between restriction fragments
DNA microarray assay
a method to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time; tiny amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing different genes are fixed to a glass side; these fragments, ideally representing all the genes of an organism, are tested for hybridization with various samples of cDNA molecules
electroporation
method of introducing recombinant DNA into eukaryotic cells in which a brief electrical pulse applied to a solution containing cells creates temporary holes in their plasma membranes, through which DNA can enter
expression vector
a cloning vector that contains a highly active prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a restriction site where the eukaryotic gene can be inserted in the correct reading frame
gel electrophoresis
the separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel
gene cloning
a process in which scientists prepare well-defined gene-sized pieces of DNA in multiple identical copies in order to work directly with specific genes
gene therapy
the alteration of an afflicted individual's genes
genetic engineering
the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
genetically modified (GM) organism
an organism that has acquired by artificial means one or more genes from the same or another species
genomic library
the complete set of plasmid clones, each carrying copies of a particular segment from the initial genome
genomics
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
Human Genome Project
ambitious mapping project to sequence the human genome
in vitro mutagenesis
a technique to discover the function of a gene by introducing specific changes into the sequence of a clone gene, reinserting the mutated gene into a cell, and studying the phenotype of the mutant
linkage map
map of genetic markers spaced throughout each of the chromosomes; the order and relative distances between the markers are based on recombination frequencies
nucleic acid hybridization
base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule, used to detect a gene of interest
nucleic acid probe
the complementary molecule, a short, single stranded nucleic acid that can either be RNA or DNA, that's used in nucleic acid hybridization
physical map
map in which the distances between markers are expressed in some physical measure, usually the number of base pairs along the DNA
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides
proteomics
systematic study of the full protein sets encoded by genomes
recombinant DNA
DINA in which nucleotide sequences from two different sources (often different species) are combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule
restriction enzyme
enzymes that cut DNA molecules at a limited number of specific locations
restriction fragment
DNA segment resulting from cutting of DNA by a restriction enzyme
restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction pattern lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes); useful as genetic markers for making linkage maps
restriction site
a particular short DNA sequence recognized by a specific restriction enzyme
RNA interference (RNAi)
a technique to silence the expression of selected genes in nonmammalian organisms; uses synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules matching the sequence of a particular gene to trigger the breakdown of the gene's messenger RNA
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
single base-pair variations in the genome
Southern blotting
a hybridization technique that enables researchers to determine the presence of certain nucleotide sequences in a sample of DNA
sticky end
single-stranded end of a double-stranded restriction fragment, can form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary sticky ends on any other DNA molecules cut with the same enzyme
Ti plasmid
a plasmid of a tumor-inducing-bacterium that integrates a segment of its DNA into the host chromosome of a plant; frequently used as a carrier for genetic engineering in plants
transgenic
pertaining to an individual plant or animal whose genome contains a gene introduced from another organism, either from the same or a different species
yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)
a vector that combines the essentials of a eukaryotic chromosome (an origin for DNA replication, a centromere, and two telomeres) with foreign DNA