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35 terms

Health knowledge bowl unit 21

Physical Therapy Skills
STUDY
PLAY
Range-of-motion (ROM)
exercises are done to maitain the health of the musculoskeletal system.
Contracture
a tightening and shortening of a muscle, resulting in a permanent flexing of a joint.
Active ROM exercises
performed by patients who are able to move each joint without assistance.
Active Assistive ROM exercises
the patient actively moves the joints but recieves assistance to complete the entire ROM.
Passive ROM exercises
another person moves each joint for a patient who is not able to exercise.
Resistive ROM exercises
adminstered by a therapist, and the exercises are performed against resistance provided by the therapist.
Abduction
moving a part away from the midline of the body.
Adduction
moving a part toward the midline of the body.
Flexion
bending of a body part.
Extension
straightening a body part.
Hyperextension
excessive straightening of a body part.
Rotation
moving a body part around its own axis, for example, turning the head from side to side.
Circumduction
moving in a circle at a joint, or moving one end of a body part in a circle while the other end remains stationary, such as swinging arm in a circle; involves all the movements of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation.
Pronation
turning a body part downward (turning palm down)
Supination
turning a body part upward (turning palm up)
Inversion
turning a body part inward.
Eversion
turning a body part outward.
Dorsiflexion
bending backward (bending the foot toward the knee)
Plantar FLexion
bending forward (straightening the foot away from the knee)
Radial deviation
moving toward the thumb side of the hand.
Ulnar deviation
moving toward toward the little finger side of the hand.
Crutches
are artificial supports that assist a patient who needs help walking.
Axillary Crutches
made of wood or aluminum and used for patients who need crutches for a short period of time.
Forearm or Lofstrand crutches
attach to forearms; used for patients with weakness or paralysis in both legs; recommended for patients who need crutches permanently or for a long period of time.
Platform crutches
used for patients who cannot grip handles of other crutches or bear weight on wrist and hands.
Four-point gait
used when both legs can bear some weight.
Two-point gait
often taught after the four-point gait is mastered.
Three-point gait
used when only one leg can bear weight.
Swing-to gait
a more rapid gait, taught after other gaits are mastered.
Swing-through gait
most rapid, it requires the most strength and skill.
Cane
is an assistive device that provides balance and support.
Walker
is a four-legged device that provides support.
Transfer (gait) Belt
is a band of fabric or leather that is positioned around the patients waist.
Vasodilation
the blood vessels in the area become larger (dilated).
Vasconstriction
the blood vessels become smaller (constricted).