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Honors History 10 French revolution
Terms in this set (91)
What is the ceremony called when the king dies
a social class in France
middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people and part of the 3rd Estate
the king of France whose inexperience caused the spark that ignited the revolution. He ruled with an absolute monarchy; he was weak and indecisive
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
"The Clergy"--Make up 1% of the population. Religious leaders who own 10% of the land. Did not pay taxes.
"The Nobles"---Make up 2% of population, but owns 25% of land. Paid no taxes, held highest offices in government. Controlled the most wealth.
"The 97% of population, 65 % of land, 3 levels of the Estate. Paid the most taxes and had little political power.
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages. Paris Commune.
Olympe de Gouges
A butchers daughter from Montauban. Was a major revolutionary radical in Paris. Composed the Declaration of Rights of Women
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Slogan for members of the French Revolution
New law-making body created by the constitution adopted in 1791 by the National Assembly
Members of this law-making body who opposed the idea of monarchy and wanted sweeping governmental change
Term used to describe nobles who had fled France and who hoped to restore the Old Regime
Device used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
Radical political organization that in September 1792 abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic
Reign of Terror
Period of time during which Maximilian Robespierre governed France; The excessively violent period of time during the French Revolution under the rule of Robespierre
In what way is the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen "Enlightened"?
It doesn't have a separation of social classes (all are equal) and state and church are completely separate.
Marie Antoinette was from which country?
Why was France in so much debt? (The French Revolution)
7 years war cost put them in debt and helping with America Revolutionary war
Why was poverty and malnourished increasing?
Wildly growing population and bad harvest (lack of bread)
Which groups in France made up each one of the three estates?
a. First: Clergy
b. Second: Nobles
c. Third: Bourgeoisie and the Poor
What are some of the reasons for the dissatisfaction of the Third Estate?
-Taxation only on them
-The kind and queen use up all money
-Bread prices shooting up
Why do you think King Louis XVI gave in at first to some of the demands of the Third Estate?
In hopes to take care of their ideas of revolution (to calm them down)
What role did the "Enlightenment" play in driving the French people to participate in the Revolution?
The ideas of Rousseau, Locke, and other philosophes
Why the guillotine was considered a more humane form of punishment?
Everyone was killed in an equal way no matter what estate you belong to.
What do you think the majority of French people wanted to see changed as a result of the Revolution?
All people sharing the same set of laws not matter what your social class.
Why were the majority of the French so upset before the Revolution?
The outrageous prices of bread and other staple products.
Why do you think the executions by guillotine in France were public events?
It was actually a form of entertainment as well as proof to the public how everyone is being treated equal, and making an example of all these people.
What was the phase called in which large numbers (17,000) of French people were executed?
Reign of Terror
What was the greatest legacy of the French Revolution?
The new Republic
A major change in government that began in 1789; it brought an end to the absolute monarchy and a start to a representative government
Old Regime; Ancien Regime
A combination of the absolute monarchy and feudalism in France; it included the three estates
The social classes in the France
They consisted of the Roman Catholic Clergy; they received special privileges and paid no direct taxes
They consisted of the Nobles; they received special privileges and paid no direct taxes to the king
They consisted of the bourgeoisie, the san-culottes and the peasants; they paid high taxes and had no special privileges
They were the urban middle-class; they were the merchants/artisans and were well-educated and often wealthy
They were the rural poor; they were the farmers who paid about half of their income in taxes to the nobles, the church and other agents of the king
The legislative branch of the French government prior to the French Revolution; it could meet only with permission from the king (May 5th, 1789)
Vote by Order
When each estate received one vote; this was favored by the First and Second Estates
Vote by Head
When each representative received one vote; this was favored by the Third Estate
June 17th, 1789
This is the date that the Third Estate voted to leave the Estates-General and form a new body of government for the people of France
This was legislative branch of the government; it proclaimed an end to the absolute monarchy and the start of a representative government; it ended feudalism, serfdom, taxes to the church and the special privileges of the 1st and 2nd estates
Tennis Court Oath
A promise made by the members of the National Assembly to stay together until they had written a constitution for France; this was the first deliberate act of the revolution (treason)
Queen of France at the start of the Revolution, and wife of King Louis XVI. From Austria and was disliked by many French citizens because she spent so much money on herself. She was found guilty of treason and guillotined. Famous saying: "Let them eat cake."
A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was home to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
July 14th, 1789
This is the date that represents the symbolic start of the French Revolution; Parisians stormed the Bastille. AKA: France's Independence Day.
A medieval fort and prison in Paris used to store gun powder
Fall of the Bastille
Hundreds of hungry people stormed the prison in search of gunpowder to save Paris and the National Assembly; this was the symbolic start of the revolution
Liberty, Fraternity, Equality
This was the slogan (battlecry) of the French Revolution
This was the legislative branch of government that was elected in to power and voted to start a war with Austria; it was forced to step down from power
Hoping to spread their revolutionary ideas, France voted to declare war on this country
This was the legislative branch of government that deposed the king of his title, declared France a republic and publically executed the king and queen
The radical leader during the French Revolution responsible for the Reign of Terror; he wanted to create a Republic of Virtue
Republic of Virtue
Robespierre's attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility and the Catholic Church
A machine used to behead people; it was suppose to make death quick and painless
A group of 5 men who were given control of France following the Reign of Terror; Napoleon was one of the 5 men
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the document written by the National Assembly that identified the natural rights of the French citizens as well as their other liberties
This group hated the king, wanted drastic and sweeping changes and advocated the use of violence in the name of the revolution
This group liked the king, wanted no more changes and was opposed to violence
This group could live with or without the king, wanted some additional changes and supported violence only if it was justified
The right to vote
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly
notebook used during the French Revolution to record grievances
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
when the government spend more money than it takes in
What symbolized the death of Louis XIV
Who "Yawned his life away"
According to Madame Roland, Louis XVI was
without energy or firmness of character
How many estates were there
The Bastille was a
What percent of taxes made it back to the French Government
The Tennis court Oath Promised that the third estate would stay together until they had
written a constitution
What did the August Reforms abolish
class tax privileges
Who was most directly affected by the Civil Constitution of Clergy
Big and ugly Jacobin leader beheaded by Robspierre
A doctor turned journalist
People who fled France often Nobles
July 1793-1794 "Died of Peace"
Reign of Terror
Murder who hated terror
Married at 15
Austrian by birth
Fed by rumors that nobles hired outlaws to kill peasants
Man with a skin disease
Did the French Revolution leave the old regime alive
What are the 6 underlying causes of the revolution
Extravagance and inefficient government spending, rivalries and divisions of classes, the French government was broke, bourgeoisie, Remnants of Feudalism, and Philosophes
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