Chapter 21 - structure and function of cardiovascular system
What is the main function of the circulatory system?
What two things does the circulatory system deliver to the tissues?
oxygen and nutrients
What does the circulatory system circulate?
electrolyetes and hormones
What does the circulatory help regulate in the body?
What are the two parts of the circulatory system?
pulmonary and systemic circulation
What does the pulmonary circulation move?
blood through the lungs
What does the systemic circulation supply?
all other tissues in body
What are the two types of circulation?
central and peripheral
What is the central circulation?
blood that is in the heart and pulmonary circulation
What is the peripheral circulation?
blood that is outside the central circulation
What do both the pulmonary and systemic circulations have?
a pump, arterial system, venous system, and capillaries
What is the function of arteries?
to move blood to the tissues
What do capillaries serve as?
an exchange system
What is exchanged at the capillaries?
gases, nutrients, wastes
What is the function of veins?
to store blood, and bring blood back to the heart
What side of the heart is involved in the pulmonary circulation?
What side of the heart is involved in the systemic circulation?
What structures are in the pulmonary circulation?
pulmonary artery, capillaries, and veins
What structures are in the systemic circulation?
aorta, capilaries, systemic venous system and vena cava
What do the capillaries supply in the systemic circulation?
brain and peripheral tissue
Which blood pressure is higher? arterial or venous?
What does hemo mean?
What does dynamic refer to?
relation between motion and force
What are the most important factors in hemodynamics?
pressure, resistance, and flow
What is blood flow determined by?
pressure difference, and the resistance that blood most overcome
What is laminar blood flow?
center flowing faster then sides
What is turbulent blood flow?
What direction does blood flow in turbulent flow?
crosswise and lengthwise
What is compliance?
how distendable a blood vessel is
What are the three layers of the heart?
pericardium, myocardium, enocardium
What holds the heart in place?
What is the myocardium?
What does the myocardium form?
walls of atria and ventricles
What lines the heart?
What are AV and semilunar valves?
pressure valves that ensure one way flow
Where is the bicuspid valve found?
on left side
Where is the tricuspid valves found?
on right side
What is the cardiac cycle used to describe?
rhythmic pumping action of heart
What are the two parts of the cardiac cycle?
systole and diastole
What occurs during systole?
ventricles are contraction
What occurs during diastole?
ventricles are relaxing and filling with blood
What does the P wave of the cardiac cycle represent?
depolarization of atrial mass
What does the QRS wave of the cardiac cycle represent?
depolarization of ventricular conduction system and mass
What does the T wave of the cardiac cycle represent?
repolarization of the ventricles
What causes valves to open?