Terms in this set (60)
refers to the study of structure and the relationship among those structures
study of the functions of the body parts
the study of tissues
study of cells and their structures
morphology and markings
the body systems and how they affect each other
the body regions and the organs and structures in the regions
from fertilized egg to adult
fertilized egg to the 8th week
reasons for death
1. Chemical 2. Cells 3. Tissues 4. Organs 5. Systems 6. Organism
1. Metabolism 2. Excitability 3. Conductivity 4. Contractibility 5. Growth 6. Differentiation 7. Reproduction
includes the skull and vertebral
everything else; subdivided into two
contains the pleural cavity that contains the lungs, mediastinum contains everything in the thorax but the lungs, and the pericardial cavity that contains the heart
contains the abdominal cavity that contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and most of the large intestine and the pelvic cavity that contains the reproductive parts, urinary bladder, appendix, and some large intestine
maintain the physiological limits of the body
Negative Feedback System
reaction of the body counteracts the stress. Stimulatory- inhibitory
Positive Feedback System
reaction of the body intensifies the stress. Stimulatory- stimulatory
Factors for Homeostasis
1. optimum concentration of gases, nutrients, ions, and water 2. optimum temperature (about 98.6 degrees F/37 degrees C) 3. optimum pressure for health of the cells
material between the nucleus and the cell membrane. Contains the organelles and the inclusions bodies.
selectively permeable membrane. Polar bilipid membrane.
most notable structure in the cell. Control center of the cell. Contains DNA.
conversion of energy into ATP. "powerhouse" of the cell. Interfolded membrane (cristae). Increased surface are to increase the ATP production.
often connected to endoplasmic reticulum. Synthesis of carbohydrates, join proteins to form a glycoprotein. Found in large numbers in secretory tissue.
system of double membranous channels that run throughout the cell. "Transportation system". 2 types.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
studded with ribosomes that synthesize proteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
make steroid hormones involved in lipid and fat synthesis
tiny granules that are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Site of protein synthesis, receive genetic instructions that tells the order of amino acids that are linked to form proteins
appear as membrane enclosed spheres. formed by golgi complex and contain acid digestive enzymes capable of breaking down many molecules. White blood cells contain large numbers of these.
Centrosomes and Centrioles
active in cell division
preparation period, DNA replication
chromosomes become visible, spindle fibers can be seen
chromatid pairs line up on the equatorial plane of the cell
chromatid pairs split and individual chromosomes are ¨pulled¨ pulled to opposite poles of the cell
nuclear membrane forms around bunch of chromosomes at each pole. Spindle fibers disappear.
begins during anaphase and stops at the same time as telophase. Cell splits at the equatorial plane.
one or two more states of an expressed gene
change of genetic message of a cell
most common FATAL genetic disorder in Caucasians. Infected patient secretes thick mucous that clogs their lungs and passages of the pancreas and liver. "Recessive". Caused by a defect in the way cells transport chloride ions across membranes.
Sickle Cell Anemia
shape of RBC hemoglobin are defective. Sickle shape make the RBC's difficult to pass through small blood vessels.
incurable disorder in which the brain deteriorates. Kids rarely live pass the age of 5. In the United States it occurs in about 1 of 30,000 births. Higher rate among Jewish Americans with European ancestors. (1 in 3600) Lysosomes in brain can't break down certain material, swell bust and oxidize the surrounding cells.
"bleeders". Sex-linked recessive trait. Afflicted are slow to clot or don't clot at all.
30 disorders characterized by the wasting away of muscles. Duchenne MD most common , lack of protein (dystrophin) for muscle maintenance. Sex-linked -recessive. 1 in 10,000 people worldwide will develop.
body erect, eyes forward, arms at sides, palms and toes directed forward.
divides the body into upper and lower cross sections
divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
divides the body into right and left sections
composed of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. Covers and protects body. Sweat glands help control body temperature; as barrier, skin helps maintain steady state.
composed of bones, cartilage, and ligaments. Supports body, protects; muscles attach to bones; provides calcium storage; blood cell formation. Helps maintain constant calcium level in blood.
composed of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. Moves parts of skeleton, locomotion; pumps blood; aids movement of internal materials. Ensures such vital functions as nutrition through body movements; smooth muscle maintains blood pressure; cardiac muscle circulates the blood.
composed of nerves and sense organs, brain and spinal cord. Receives stimuli from external and internal environment, conducts impulses, integrates activities of other systems. Principle regulatory system.
composed of pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, and other ductless glands. Regulates body chemistry and many body functions. Regulates metabolic activities and blood levels of various substances.
composed of heart, blood vessels, blood; lymph and lymph structures. Transports materials from one part of the body to another; defends body against disease. Transports oxygen, nutrients, hormones; removes wastes; maintains water and ionic balance of tissues.
composed of lungs and air passageways. Exchanges gases between blood and external enviroment. Maintains adequate blood oxygen content; eliminates carbon dioxide.
composed of mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas. Ingests and digests foods, absorbs them into blood. Maintains adequate supplies of fuel molecules and building materials.
composed of kidney, bladder, and associated ducts. Excretes metabolic wastes; removes substances present in excess from blood. Regulates blood chemistry in conjunction with endocrine system.
composed of the testes, ovaries, and associated structures. Reproduction; provides for continuation of species. Passes on genetic endowment of individual; maintains secondary sex characteristics.