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Key Terms in Missions
Terms in this set (34)
An imaginary rectangular window between the 10th and the 40th latitudes, bordered around Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. This window contains the bulk of the unreached peoples in the world and the bulk of the non-Christian religions.
Developed as a spin-off from the 10/40 Window, this term refers to the age at which children are most likely to commit their lives to Christ as well as the ages at which they are most vulnerable.
Business as Mission
"BAM is broadly defined as a for-profit commercial business venture that is Christian led, intentionally devoted to being used as an instrument of God's mission (missio Dei) to the world, and is operated in a cross-cultural environment, either domestic or international" (C.N. Johnson 2009, 27-28).
"A rapid multiplication of indigenous churches planting churches that sweeps through a people group or population segment" (Garrison 2004, 21).
The core idea is that of taking the gospel to a new context and finding appropriate ways to communicate it so that it is understandable to the people in their context (Moreau 2012, 32-36). Contextualization (or appropriate Christianity; see C.H. Kraft 2005) refers to more than just theology; it also includes developing church life and ministry that are biblically faithful and culturally appropriate (Moreau 2005, 321).
Creative Access Country
A nation-state in which traditional missionary work is illegal or banned. Missionaries who want to work in such countries must be creative in the means they utilize for entry and residence. [...]
a little bit of change over time leads to greater change
The contemporary scattering of peoples across the globe whether from economic migration, refugee flight, displacement, or other circumstances. This reality has opened new doors for missional action and missiological reflection (e.g., diaspora missiology; see Wan and Tira 2009; Wan 2011).
Parallel to the conciliar movement, this term generally refers to the twentieth-century phenomenon of Protestant churches and denominations working together in the context of the World Council of Churches with a goal of achieving some type of external unity (see Ritschl 1991).
Defined as mission that focuses on "caring for the environment and making disciples among all peoples" (Bliss 2013, 17).
From Everywhere to Everywhere
Reflects the fact that mission is two-way everywhere in the world. Almost every inhabited region of the world is now both sending and receiving people who serve in some capacity as bearers of Christ's message, whether as refugees, international workers, traditional missionaries, or business people.
Intersection of the global with the local; on a personal level consciously striving to have a global perspective while fully engaged in a local setting.
Holistic or Integral Mission
Mission that takes into account the whole of human needs: spiritual, social, and personal. Holistic mission includes evangelism and church planting as well as development and social transformation.
Incarnational Mission (*)
Just as Christ was incarnated as a person, so missionaries, it can be said, need to incarnate themselves into a new context. They cannot come as newborns, but they can learn the language and culture of their new context in such a way that they can behave like a person who was born in that context.
A church that fits well into the local culture. Traditionally, this is defined in terms of "three selfs": self-governing (not dependent on outside agencies to make decisions), self-supporting (not needing outside funding to carry on its work), and self-propagating (able to evangelize within its own culture effectively). More recently, self-theologizing - the ability to develop its own theological understandings from Scripture - has been added to the criteria.
A missionary from what once was considered to be a receiving nation. This term tends to be used broadly of both indigenous evangelists (who do not cross cultural boundaries) and indigenous missionaries (who may cross significant boundaries even though they stay within their country of residence).
"Movements to obedient faith in Christ that remain integrated with or /inside/ their natural community. In any insider movement there are two distinct elements: 1) The gospel takes root within /pre-existing communities/ or social networks, which /become/ the main expression of 'church' in that context.... New parallel social structures are not invented or introduced. 2) Believers retain their identity as members of their socio-religious community while living under the Lordship of Jesus Christ and the authority of the Bible" (R. Lewis 2009, 16, emphasis in original).
The prominent denominations of the 19th and 20th centuries in North America and Europe, including various branches within the Episcopal (Anglican), Presbyterian (and other Reformed groups), Methodist, Lutheran, and United Church of Christ traditions.
The most common of several designations that have been used to name the part of the world outside of what is commonly called the "West." Other terms include developing world, Afericasia (McGavran 1970, 9), third world, two-thirds world, underdeveloped world, and world A.
The practice of caring for missionaries and their families by ensuring that the emotional, psychological, social, physical, and spiritual needs of missionaries are met.
Mission is centered on God's character rather than human activity. It is God who initiates and sustains mission, and we are called and privileged to participate in God's mission work.
The conscious intent of participation in the /missio Dei/, today used of churches in Western settings that see themselves as missiologically engaged in their own settings (see an expansive exploration in Frost 2011; Van Gelder 2007, 2009; as well as Van Gelder and Zscheile 2011).
A person who energizes a church or a group of people and its resources for mission. This may be an outsider (a missions agency representative, a missionary, a consultant) or an insider (a missions pastor, an elder, a member of the church missions committee, a Bible study leader).
Missionaries who choose to live a monastic lifestyle in their mission engagement, which includes commitment to an ordered life, communal living, a simple lifestyle, and working on behalf of the poor (Claiborne 2006; Bessenecker 2006).
Reliance on the spoken word rather than on writing, including the framing of mission for those whose preferred communication patterns are oral rather than literate.
A people group usually is defined by ethnic or linguistic terms. It is estimated that there are some twelve thousand distinct languages and dialects and as many as twenty-four thousand people groups in the world today.
Missionary engagement of people from countries that historically have been the recipients of missionaries (e.g., Africa, Asia, Latin America) to countries that have historically been the senders of missionaries (e.g., Europe, North America) (see, e.g., Catto 2008; Olofinjana 2010).
The Hebrew word for peace in the OT, where it refers to wholeness, completeness, and soundness. It is a holistic term, extending to include spiritual peace (salvation), physical peace (healing), psychological peace (wholeness), and social peace (justice and freedom from war).
This term usually refers to trips with a mission focus that range from one week to one or two years. They may be organized by churches, agencies, or even individuals for a variety of reasons (e.g., English-language camps, church-building projects, evangelistic campaigns).
Reflects the reality that Satan does not want unbelievers to come to Christ or believers to live fruitful, holy lives. The warfare that Christians face involves Satan and his hosts constantly trying to maneuver them toward spiritual lethargy or depression while they seek to live the abundant life that Jesus promised.
The replacement of core or important truths of the gospel with non-Christian elements (Moreau 2001b).
A term coined from Paul's stay at Corinth when he made tents so as not to be a burden to the Corinthian church. Tentmaking is the practice of using paid employment to gain and maintain entry in a cross-cultural setting. Tentmakers work as professionals and engage in ministry activities in addition to their wage-earning work.
Working to change society by transforming its unjust structures into more-just ones. In the twentieth century evangelicals typically did not think of transformation as appropriate missionary work. However, advocates of transformation rightly note that the historical fights against the slave trade, infanticide, widow burning, and foot binding are examples of transformational mission (see Tizon 2008 for an in-depth exploration).
People groups (see above) that currently have no access to the gospel. They are "hidden," not in the sense that they are invisible, but in the sense that there is no way, given current conditions, that they can hear the gospel in their own language in a way that makes sense to them.
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