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Ionic Bond

electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge, usually result from the interaction of metals on the left side with nonmetals (excluding group 8A)

Covelant Bond

sharing of electrons between two atoms, nometallic elements with one another

Metallic Bond

found in metals

Lewis Dot Structure

simple way of showing valence electrons in an atom, bond formations. the lewis symbol for an element consists of the chemical symbol for the element plus a dot for each valence electron

Octet Rule

atoms tends to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons, full s and p subshells

Lattice Energy

the energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions

Lattice Energy Formula

Eel = kQ₁Q₂ / d k = 8.99x10⁹ J-m/C²


the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself

Electron Affinity

measure of how strongly an atom attracts additional electrons

Ionization Energy

how strongly a gaseous atom holds onto its electrons

Dipole Moment

the quantitative measure of the magnitude of a dipole


a distance separates two electrical charges of equal magnitude but opposite signs

Steps to drawing lewis structures

1. Sum the valence electrons from all atoms, 2. write the symbols for the atoms to show which atoms are attached to which and connect them with a single bond, 3. complete the octets around all the atoms bonded to the central atom. 4. place any leftover electrons on the central atom 5. if there are not enough to give the central atom an octet, try multiple bonds

Formal Charge

any atom in a molecule is the charge the atom would have if all the atoms in the molecule had the same electronegativity

Exception to the Octet Rule

molecules and polyatomic ions containing odd number of electrons, fewer than an octet of valence electrons, atom with more than an octet of valence electrons

Bond Enthalpy

enthalpy change in reactions in which bonds are broken, the bond enthalpy is always a positive quantity,

C-m in D

3.34 x 10⁻³⁰

A in m


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