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18 terms

Chapter 8

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Ionic Bond
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge, usually result from the interaction of metals on the left side with nonmetals (excluding group 8A)
Covelant Bond
sharing of electrons between two atoms, nometallic elements with one another
Metallic Bond
found in metals
Lewis Dot Structure
simple way of showing valence electrons in an atom, bond formations. the lewis symbol for an element consists of the chemical symbol for the element plus a dot for each valence electron
Octet Rule
atoms tends to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons, full s and p subshells
Lattice Energy
the energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions
Lattice Energy Formula
Eel = kQ₁Q₂ / d k = 8.99x10⁹ J-m/C²
Electronegativity
the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself
Electron Affinity
measure of how strongly an atom attracts additional electrons
Ionization Energy
how strongly a gaseous atom holds onto its electrons
Dipole Moment
the quantitative measure of the magnitude of a dipole
Dipole
a distance separates two electrical charges of equal magnitude but opposite signs
Steps to drawing lewis structures
1. Sum the valence electrons from all atoms, 2. write the symbols for the atoms to show which atoms are attached to which and connect them with a single bond, 3. complete the octets around all the atoms bonded to the central atom. 4. place any leftover electrons on the central atom 5. if there are not enough to give the central atom an octet, try multiple bonds
Formal Charge
any atom in a molecule is the charge the atom would have if all the atoms in the molecule had the same electronegativity
Exception to the Octet Rule
molecules and polyatomic ions containing odd number of electrons, fewer than an octet of valence electrons, atom with more than an octet of valence electrons
Bond Enthalpy
enthalpy change in reactions in which bonds are broken, the bond enthalpy is always a positive quantity,
C-m in D
3.34 x 10⁻³⁰
A in m
10⁻¹⁰