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electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge, usually result from the interaction of metals on the left side with nonmetals (excluding group 8A)
Lewis Dot Structure
simple way of showing valence electrons in an atom, bond formations. the lewis symbol for an element consists of the chemical symbol for the element plus a dot for each valence electron
atoms tends to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons, full s and p subshells
the energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions
Steps to drawing lewis structures
1. Sum the valence electrons from all atoms, 2. write the symbols for the atoms to show which atoms are attached to which and connect them with a single bond, 3. complete the octets around all the atoms bonded to the central atom. 4. place any leftover electrons on the central atom 5. if there are not enough to give the central atom an octet, try multiple bonds
any atom in a molecule is the charge the atom would have if all the atoms in the molecule had the same electronegativity
Exception to the Octet Rule
molecules and polyatomic ions containing odd number of electrons, fewer than an octet of valence electrons, atom with more than an octet of valence electrons
enthalpy change in reactions in which bonds are broken, the bond enthalpy is always a positive quantity,
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