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Organism for which sexual reproduction produces offspring with inherited traits identical to those of the parents; organisms are homozygous for the characteristic under consideration
Offspring of two parents that differ in one or more inherited traits; an individual that is heterozygous for one or more pairs of genes
Cross-fertilization of two different varieties of an organism or two different species; hybridization
Parent individuals from which offspring are derived in inheritance studies; P = parental
In a heterozygote, allele that determines the phenotype with respect to a particular gene
Law of segregation
Individuals have two alleles for each gene and that when gametes form by meiosis, the two alleles separate and each resulting gamete possesses only one allele of each gene
Particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome; homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene loci
Law if independent assortment
General rule of inheritance that when gametes form during meiosis, each pair of alleles for a particular characteristic segregate independently
Rule of multiplication
The probability of a compound event is the product of the separate probabilities of the independent events
Family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations
Individual who is heterozygous for a recessive inherited disorder and who does not show symptoms of that disorder
Form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; homozygous condition is lethal
Human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele and characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10-20 years after onset of symptoms
Type of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate between the two types of homozygous phenotypes
Inherited human disease characterized by an excessively high level of cholesterol in the blood
ABO blood groups
Genetically determined human blood classes that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B in the surface of red blood cells
Genetic disorder in which red blood cells have abnormal hemoglobin molecules and take on an abnormal shape
The additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic characteristic
Chromosome theory of inheritance
Basic biological principle stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns
With respect to two given genes, the number of recombinant progeny from a mating divided by the total number of progeny; recombinant progeny carry different combinations of alleles than their parents as a result of independent assortment and crossing over
Red-green color blindness
Category of common sex linked human disorders involving several genes on the X chromosome and characterized by a malfunction of light-sensitive cells in the eye; affects mostly males but also homozygous females
Sex-linked human genetic blood disorder caused by a recessive allele that affects proper blood clotting
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