What was Greek art about in regards to philosophical expression?
The ideal of manhood: pride, strength, resourcefulness, honest, and virtue
What were the dates did the Greeks achieve the high point of civilization where Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, laid ideas of Western philosophy, Herodtus establish history, discipline and chronicled the Persian Wars, Aeschylus and Sophocles refined Greek tragedy, and all cultivated an outlook on life that was humanistic, antiauthoritarian, questioning, and undogmatic?
480 to 323 B.C.
When did the Macedonians became rulers of Greece and at this time the classical phase ended?
As the classical phase ended, the classical arts balance interest in what?
individual, natural, specific features with generalities, ideas, and norms
Who commisioned the Warriors from Riace and for what?
Athenians dedicated it to the sanctuary at Delphi to commemorate their victory at Marathon.
What principles did the warriors from Riace reflect?
500 years of experimentation with human form that produce and demonstrate human perfection around 5th B.C.
What did the Greeks learned from the Egyptians and what did they infuse in their art?
static art Greeks infused visual and emotional experience in their art.
It was built from (blank) marble set on a (blank) base as it utilized parts of the old building in its construction.
The Pathenon is rised from what (include definition)?
Acropolis (sacred outcropping dominating Athens)
Built as a temple and dedicated to who?
virgin goddess Athena Parthenos, daughter of Zeus and patron and protector of Athens
Parthenon building was no accident but result of refinement in temple building in Greece, 1st made of (blank) and built in stone, with (blank) construction technique of earlier wooden structures. Its height, width, columns, mass, open space, and relation to its surroundings express a sense of order and peace.
mud and wood post-and-lintel
The (blank), (blank)(the space between 2 blocks with vertical groves in the (blank) of a (blank) order), and central lock carried sculpture (painted in colors).
pediments metopes frieze Doric
(blank) statue (by (blank)), now lost, was principal statue of Partheneon. May have been over (blank)ft high with gold and ivory embellished goddess standing in her sanctuary.
Athena Phidias 30
What is the style and what compressed by weight of the structure?
fluted column, pediment, roof, and carved architectural embellishment Large columns thicken in center
In athens sculpture metopes depict battle between centaurs and Lapiths. Who were the Lapiths?
tribe of peace loving men
How were the centuars and Lapith's seen as?
Lapith's were triumph in bloody conflict as victory of civilization over barbarity.
(blank) depiciting each a battle scene. Violent struggle becomes a dance as figure float across surface of (blank). Clash between (blank) and form become a balance and harmony term classic.
92 relief realism geometric
Three Goddesses, from the Parthenon, was made about what year and who were they based on?
435 B.C. Leto, Artemis, and Aphrodite,
Girl with Doves was made in what year and what did it the dove symbolized?
450 BC. love and constancy
Girl with Doves invoke the word stele. What does it mean from Greek?
"standing block" or "gravestone"
Girl with Doves was depicted as? What was the meaning of this depiction?
A young girl bidding farewell to her doves. Tender and sad as it expresses spirit and charm of a long-departed child.
In what ways was Greek pottery made?
Exploited material-iron-rich clay yielded an intense orange-red and deep black when fried.
The Dionysys Cup is a footed (blank) with (blank) handles and wide (blank) suitable for (blank) (blank).
vessel 2 bowl aerating wine
The Dionysus Cup tells a story about what?
Dionysus was capture by pirates on his ship. He terrified them by flooding his ship with wine, causing a great vine to sprout from the mast and creating illusions of wild beasts. Pirates leapt from the ship into sea, transforming into dolphins.
It's painted how (Define the description of style)?
Black-figure style: black figure on reddish orange clay ground.
The style replaced by red figures set against black ground, which gives artists a chance to paint faces, bodies, and drapery with brush instead of incising happen about what year?
The result is less décor but displays more complex images. It shows (blank).
composition and narration.
What was it about and theme?
Body of fallen warrior, Sarpedon, son of Zeus, is carried off from battle field by Sleep and death (twins) under Hermes supervison. Tragedy
What is the specific action of this scene?
Somber action is giving weight and bending winged figures who struggle to lift him.
According to Greek myth about the 1st sculptor, (blank) of (blank) fashioned a cow to disguise the wife of King Minos so a bull would copulate with her and bore the Minotaur.
Kouros (blank) This life size figure of a (blank) (blank) reflects an increased knowledge of anatomy, gained from watching athletes and warriors they practiced. These were placed on pedestals outside temples as offereings or memorials on a gravesites (represented (blank)), slain by wild Ares in the front rank of battle."
540 B.C. male youth kroisos
What was the Kouros convention and based on?
one foot placed before the other, arms at sides facing forward. Received knowledge rather than visual analysis.
Peplos Kore (blank) Depicitng a (blank) or a member of a (blank), kore shows Eastern tradition through her dress. This indicates statue's origins among sculptors of eastern Greek center of (blank).
530 B.C. priestess religious cult Ionia
Peplos Kore has traces of (blank) that embellished her hair and dress, adding (blank) as well as life-like.
About what year did the Greek sculptors experimented with bronze casting to produce large-scale figures.
Kritios Boy (blank) Found on (blank). Sculptor (blank) created a figure that abandonded almost entirely the (blank) figure.
480 B.C. Acroplois Kritios Kourous
The major differneces between the Kritios and Kouros scuplutres are what?
Introduce anatomical realism, Freed of static code, Face shows reflex, body responds as a real body would to an extended leg
The Kritios Boy was the 1st beautiful nude in art that started what?
Greek classical age in sculpture
This change altered (blank) of Kouros and gave (blank) sculpture potential for fluidity and grace, which unifies into our own realm of experience.
In the Roman copy of the Doryphrous of Polyclitus where Polyclitus was constructing his ideal man, he was probably inspired by (blank). He wrote a book on measurement and proportion, established thicker and more compact proportion for the ideal male than Riace warriors or equally famous others.
Pythagorean theories of mathematics
How is the Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture portrayed?
Left arm streched out to balance backward motion of spear throwing. Looks at direction of his aim. Leg extended in preparation for the forward thrust needed to propel his weapon.
What theories are presented on the Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture?
human proportions based on universal principles of mathematics, human anatomy and ideal proportions,
What does Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture present to the viewer?
Express confidence in his aim and throwing distance.
The god, be he Zeus or Poseidon, stands as an quintessential (blank). Man and god become alike.
Athletes generally known only to be virtue of actions, such as Discobolus (blank), were vigoroulsy competing spirit.
Between what dates did Sparta supplanted (took over) Athens during Peloponnesian War, but were not capable in leading Greece falling into corruption?
431 and 404 BC
Give the following dates in the blanks. Greek fell to Rome due to political decline (blank) Syracuse sacked, (blank) Corinth and Cartage fell, (blank) Athens lost to Roman General Sulla.
212 B.C. 146 B.C. 86 B.C.
(blank) (sculptor of Hellenistic era) nickednamed "the Madman" for always smashing his works from frustration.
Why was the Nike of Samothrace made and what era did it belong to?
victory of Rhodians at sea over Antiochus III of Syria Hellenistic
How is Nike of Samothrace portrayed?
Wings spread, wind-swept, turing, moment when she landed with the cloth, still tugged by the breeze formed around her
What are the senses that are attributed in the Nike of Samothrace?
flesh, feathers, voluminous chition, sound of wings, flutter of robe.
What was the Laocoon Group about?
A Trojan priest who warned fellow Trojans not to bring the wooden horse into Troy. The gods sent 2 huge snakes who swam ashore and slowly entwined and killed Laocoon and his 2 sons so to thwart his actions.
How is the Laocoon Group portrayed?
complex twist and turns of snakes intertwined with figures in violent physical exertion
When did Greek colonies flourished in the peninsula extended into Mediterranean Sea (south of Rome) then became part of Roman empire?
Around what century was Rome the largest city in Italy (the ancient latin people ruled by Etruscan kings) ?
Around what time did they overthrew the tyrant, who was the Etruscan tyrant, and what did they established?
509 B.C. Tarquin republic
People depicted solemnly stepping along the shallow (blank) of this altar wall were celebrants in actual procession that consecrated the ground on which the altar would stand on.
This took place on July 14 (blank) including (blank) , 1st Roman emperor, and his family.
13 B.C. Caesar Augustus
Built on edge of (blank) in Rome, altar dedicated to (blank) brought by Augustus's rule.
Field of War peace
Greeks studied man and his relation to the world, the Romans studied how to (blank) the world and how to run it (blank).
organize smoothly and efficiently
When did the Etruscans, whose territory once extended throughout central Italy, were at height of power and challenged Romans for power in Italy?
(blank) were gifted metal smiths (Chimera of Arretium 5th to 4th B.C, exported throughout Mediterranean world).
(blank) , or (blank) (59 B.C. - A.D. 17) one of ancient Rome's influential historians provided factual account of Rome's early history even as he relied much of her mythology.
Titus Linius Lviy
(blank) (70 - 19 B.C) a poet did Aeneid (celebration of destiny in Rome). (blank) (43 B.C. to A.D. 18) poet did Metamorphoses (influence on Western imagery)
Virgil Ovid Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger
About when were art treasure and artists from Tarentum, Syracuse, Corinth, and Pergamum were uprooted and transported to Rome?
272 and 133 B.C
About when did collecting became fashionable around time of Corinth's fall according to Pliny the Elder?
The Pont Du Gard top level of this (blank) supported the conduit carrying water from Uzes to Nimes, France, a distance covering 13 miles.
The Pont Du Gard Huge structure with its triple rows of (blank) carried on massive (blank) (uppermost rising 180 ft above valley floor), dominates surrounding countryside.
the Baths of Caracalla had great (blank) were made of (blank) and (blank) and covered with (blank) and expensive (blank).
vaulted baths stone concrete terra-cotta marble
It had hot and cold baths, dressing rooms, furnace rooms, restaurants, libraries, and other chambers.
Why was the Baths of Caracalla one of Rome's major social centers?
Who said While the Coliseum stands, Rome shall stand; When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall, and when Rome falls the world.
Coliseum in Rome was a gigantic building, held about 50,000 people, often rowdy crowds, steeply (blank) seats offering an unobstructed viewing, large openings for entry and exit and easy access to seats.
Coliseum in Rome had a (blank) system equipped where the floor that could be flooded for sea battles; a huge cloth (blank), rigged by sailors stationed near the Coliseum for this purpose, as often extended to shade the seats.
In Coliseum in Rome where was the maze of rooms for athletes, animals and personnel who needed to shade sets?
Below ground level
The temples, such as the Maison Carrer were made Roman by high (blank), engaged (blank) set into the (blank) wall, and deep (blank).
base columns sanctuary porch
Although the Pantheon retains elements of (blank), it is a (blank) Roman temple type.
Greek temple circular
Who was the emperor that rebuilt the Pantheon and its dedication to?
Emperor Hadrian 7 planetary deities
In the Pantheon everything else is original except a giant (blank) with (blank) and (blank) as tribute to a Greek rectangular temple tradition.
porch columns pediments
(blank) was important to the Romans because of their strong sense of history and of their unique and important place in it. Immortality was often achieved by military deeds; prowess and victory in war frequently led to fame, wealth, and power.
The story behind the Arch of Titus was?
Titus, son of Emperor Vespasian, captured and destroyed Jerusalem in AD 70.
In the (blank) from Arch of Titus: The Triumph of the Emperor Titus his victory made manifest by the figure of Rome, who leads the chariot, while a figure of Victory bestows the crown.
(blank) recounts the deeds of victorious both in words and images. It was probably erected shortly after emperor's death.
The Arch of Titus was broad and weighty in appearance, its (blank), (blank) and (blank) bespeak gravity, sobriety and power, all valued Roman ideas.
piers arch attic
2 (blank) shows 1 of Titus in a triumphal car drawn by 4 horses and other of treasure taken from temple when Jerusalem was captured by Titus & Vespasian in AD. 70.
(blank) prototype may have been temp (blank) that troops passed through as they enter Roman cities.
Triumphal arch arches
(blank) crowned with life size metal (blank) (victor riding chariot drawn by horses). The carved (blank) were placed on front and back of (blank), commemorative inscriptions (sometimes (blank) letters) on them as well. They were meant to attract attention to themselves and onlookers of greatness in Roman civilization.
Arches statue panels bronze arches
Originally the Column of Trajan (blank) were enlivened by (blank) and (blank), and the column was topped by a (blank) of emperor.
reliefs paint gilding statue
Tomb of M. Vergiulus Euryasces and his wife was a wealthy (blank)to Roman state and armies and wished to be remembered by building his tomb in shape of an (blank).
In Tomb of M. Vergiulus Euryasces and his wife a (blank) depicting the making and selling of bread runs across the top of structure.
When was the arising from funerary customs, Roman portraits were intended to preserve exact likeness of the deceased?
When was Portrait statue of a Republican carrying 2 ancestor Busts (barberini statute) created?
In Portrait statue of a Republican carrying 2 ancestor Busts (barberini statute), 3 generations of Romans are depicted in this sculpture which illustrates Roman practice of carrying (blank) of ancestors during funeral rites.
How were The presentation of faces based on such as portrait statue of a Republican carrying 2 ancestor Busts (barberini statute)?
family lineage, social rank, and personal history
Permanent and durable materials (blank), like the Portrait statue of a Republican carrying 2 ancestor Busts (barberini statute), it supplanted the early (blank) mask.
marble and stone wax
How was Augustus of the Prima Porta shown in this portraiture and what did it symbolized?
general power and victory
In Augusuts of the Prima Porta, his (blank) probably depicts an actual event the submission of (blank) standards to Rome (20 BC).
breast plate Parthian
The equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius shows (blank) and (blank) character, (blank) ruler majestically addressing his troops. Scholars note that once-gilded horse formerly had a (blank) cowering under its upraised foreleg, figuratively describing Marcus's triumph over Rome's enemies.
calm introspective somber barbarian
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius made a number of influence over the coming centuries. (blank)adopted the statue to glorify his Holy Roman Empire. In the 15th A.D (blank) and (blank) borrowed statue's forms in their monuments to mercenary soldiers Gattamelata and Colleoni. 16th (blank) moved it to the Piazza del Campidoglio Rome in the middle that was he specifically designed for it. Its authority impression was used by Medici dukes and many equestrians monuments made into 19th.
Charlemagne Donatello Verrocchio Michelangelo
In Commodus as Hercules, the emperor Commodus himself saw himself as a gladiator. What 2 attributes from Hercules did this portrait show?
club and lion skin
In Commodus as Hercules, Commodus head is crowned by gaping mouth of a lion (Hercules' emblem). It's a figure of disturbing (blank) and (blank), whose presence is compelling by technical proficient of portrait (blank).
sensuality arrogance bust
In Commodus as Hercules, The deep (blank) of hair and beard, sharp (blank) of light and shade, and diverse textures was influence of Greek art for Romans that carried into the 2nd.
In Fresco from the Villa of P. Fannius Sinsistor, it depicts a young woman seated in a chair, playing the (blank)(a Greek lyre like instrument), while behind her a younger girl (perhaps her daughter) looks out shyly.
In Fresco from the Villa of P. Fannius Sinsistor (blank) brush marks set (blank) forms against a smooth screen of (blank); implies this image existed as an extension of room. Details (faces, hair, strings, inlay of chair) are laid in (blank) strokes of brush revealing a skilled painter that drew the figure ((blank) and (blank) in space).
broad solid red smaller form volume
When were sarcophagi, stone boxes designed to hold the deceased, had these pictorial conventions when interment prevailed over cremations began?
The battle carved on the Sarcophagus of a Roman General were meant to advertise the deceased's (blank) and (blank), triumph of not only Romans of their foes but also an allusion to soul's triumph over (blank).
death virtue prowess
Roman art had undergone a what fundamental transformation during the time that Sarcophagus of a Roman General was created? .
An example of (blank) in Sarcophagus of a Roman General is imppossiblity to see exactly where or on what the fighting figures stand or move. The body is handled in a more schematic, less (blank) correct way, many figures clinging to the surface of sarcophagus form is a series of clashing (blank). The artist and patron's implication no longer obsessed with (blank).
spaital ambiguity atomically abstract patterns realism
In the portrait statue, perhaps of Vincentius Ragonius Celsus, the toga is divorced from (blank) that its folds turn into patterns covering body known to be beneath, but unseen.
In the portrait statue, perhaps of Vincentius Ragonius Celsus, the (blank) beard and (blank) hair frame a plaintive face filled with (blank) longing. Eyes look up to heavens which indicated the Romans brought in (blank).
patterned stylized spiritual Christianity.
About when did these events happened: Nero blamed Christians for great fire he may have started. Paul, Christian leader, beheaded. Decius made concerted effort to eradicate Christians but failed as one group of martyrs inspired next to become believers?
Emperor Constantine issued an edict ordering full tolerance of all religions. This was the subsequent dominance of Christianity throughout Europe in what year?
In what year did Ambrose, bishop of Milan, issued the decree that closed temples and banned pagan sacrifice and all household gods, making complete triumph of Christianity as Roman Empire collapsed?
In waht year did Constantine had moved his capital to the East (Constantinople), while in the West, invading barbarians destroyed Roman unity?
Who may have commissioned the front cover of Lindau gospel from what abbey?
Charles the Bald Saint-Denis
What did the Front cover of the Lindaus Gospel portray?
Christ is shown alive and triumphant over death
In front cover of the Lindaus Gospels,the figures surrounding him- mourning (blank) above and weeping (blank) below do not move in any (blank) related to actual event of Crucifixion but float on (blank) surface, suspended from (blank).
angels humans space gilded reality
In the front cover of the Lindaus Gospels what were some of the important elements?
Design, subject matter
In the reconstruction of the basilica ULPIA, the length of the monumental basilica was about 400 feet and its interior was demarcated by 2 levels of giant marble (blank) which supported a deeply (blank) roof. The building was an architectural metaphor for Roman civilization near the zenith of its power.
Roman basilicas were not standardized but were large (blank) halls with broad (blank) ending in (blank), flanked by (blank) aisles and covered with timber roof.
rectangular naves apses colonnaded
The construction of new churches were entered at opposite end of the (blank) from (blank), sometimes placed in an (blank). Major illumination was provided by windows in level (blank) (section of (blank) rising above (blank)).
nave altar apse clerestory wall aisles
The church of Santa Sabina is one of the very few early Christian basilicas to retain much of its original appearance. The marching (blank), the large, luminous (blank), the (blank) windows, and (blank) roof were characteristic of churches built by the Early Christians. Large numerous worshippers could be comfortably housed in churches based on the basilican plan: crowds could look down the (blank) and (blank) of building and see sacred rituals performed.
columns apse clerestory timber nave aisles
Old Saint Peter's, built by (blank) but razed in 16th to make way for present church, had 4 (blank), a (blank) (the (blank) arm of church) with an apse, a large colonnaded (blank), whole may be placed on a high based that may have been a survivor of old Roman type.
Constantine aisles transept transverse atrium
Good Shepherd sarcophagus Late (blank). The Good Shepherd, a blend of (blank) and (blank) symbolism, was a popular image among the early Christian and appears on many sarcophagi and (blank) paintings.
4th. pagan Christian catacomb
How is the Good Shepherd sarcophagus portrayed?
youthful,protectore who carrys the helpless sheep on his shoulders
What does the Good Shepherd sarcophagus symbolize?
protection and compassion, image of Christ rebirth
The vines and cupids harvesting grapes of the Good Shepherd sarcophagus had long been associated with in ancient times as what and what do they now symbolize?
What motif does the Good Shepherd sarcophagus, the hero Christ and allusion of rebirth in Eucharistic grapes suggest?
(blank), city on eastern coast of (blank) about 80 miles south of (blank) shows art transformed from Roman to Middle Ages.
Ravenna Italy Venice
Late (blank) (blank) became capital of (blank) kingdom under (blank).
5th Ravenna Ostrogothic Theodoric
After (blank) conquest (who ruled (blank) from the eastern Empire) the city transformed by art and military force into the center imperial authority.
The structure of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo is a classical (blank)type, with 2 side (blank) , a (blank)roof, and (blank).
roman basilica aisles wooden apse
(blank) depicted religious themes in the Ravenna as the Romans used it as decorations for their civic basilicas.
What does Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes displayed?
Christ's dispensing loaves and fishes with his his attendants spaceless gold in background mystery of the miracle that had happened.
Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes is an example of how (blank) and precision of Roman art were replaced by an (blank), highly schematic vision.
(blank) (area off western Scotland secured from the world until Norse invasion) was a (blank) and (blank) where reading, writing, and copying went on.
Iona monastery scriptorium
The Book of Kells is described as (blank), intricate, and as animate as any portrayal of a natural action, this work epitomizes the attempt to make spiritual ideas concrete through (blank) means.
In another part of Europe, from Barcelona to Hamburg and from Rome to Utrecht, a new empire ruled by (blank) ( (blank) (742- 814)) who tried to restore a Christianized Roman empire.
Charles the Great Charlemagne
The idea behind Charlemagne, Bronze statuette was tha Charlemagne brought an (blank) of Theodoric back from Ravenna, also the (blank) derivation of this statuette is borrowed.
equestrian statue Roman
Charlemagne's seal carried the motto Renovatio Romani Imperii. What does it mean?
Restorer of the Roman Empire
Charlemagne is best known for covers of Bibles, Gospels, and since he was credited with preserving antiquity his monks collected ancient texts of what was known. What was this period called?
What was the Crucifixion, Book cover assembled with?
ivory carving, cloisonné, enamelware, jeweler's art
The Crucifixion, Book cover show the human figure reintroduce in art as a (blank) and (blank) manner. The use of (blank) and (blank) form to make pleasing configurations, and the Gospel covers do not interpret the figure but use it to propagate a preordained truth.
The Crucifixion, Book cover show the human figure reintroduce in art as a (blank) and (blank) manner. The use of (blank) and (blank) form to make pleasing configurations, and the Gospel covers do not interpret the figure but use it to propagate a preordained truth.
What does Codex Aureus and what period was it produced?
golden Gospel Carolingian and Ottonian times
In Christ in Majesty, from the Codex Aureus is an arrangement of pattern and color: (blank), (blank) and (blank), play a rhythm of images and symbols, isolating yet unifying each of the parts. Four Gospels are represented by their authors who look to Christ for guidance and each evangelist is represented by his symbol the (blank) for St Mark, (blank) for St Luke, (blank) for St John, the (blank) for St Matthew.
green red blue lion ox eagle winged man
This reliquary statue of Sainte-Foy, whose bones were stolen from the south of (blank) by a (blank) monk in the 9th, was among the major attractions at the (blank). Like other reliquaries, it as an exercise in the (blank) craft rather than a work of sculpture.
France Benedictine Abby of Conques goldsmith's
The story behind the Sainte-Foy, Reliquary Statue, was Saint Faith, a young Roman girl who had been martyred for refusing to worship pagan idols. The irony here is Sainte-Foy's remains was made into a (blank) composed of pieces taken from various sources. The Face probably made from (blank) of a late Roman Emperor, jewel-encrusted body has engraved Roman (blank), and the (blank) derives from a late Roman emperor.
golden idol golden mask gems posture
Looking at the Sainte-Foy, Reliquary Statute unknowingly that it holds the (blank)of a little girl who became a saint for her faith, the maker's were not commemorating her as human but transform her into an (blank).
severed head icon
Reliquary makers all over Europe encased (blank) of saints' bodies (tongues, fingers, bones, and hair) in (blank) for preservation.
Charlemagne's empire passed on to his sons, and lasted until (blank)as it fell apart from internal strife and external attack. A new, powerful ruling dynasty formed with (blank) , who was crowned King of (blank) in (blank) by the pope. The empire stretched from (blank) in northern Germany to (blank) in (blank). (blank) was powerful art center and occasionally reflection of antiquity.
10th Otto Lombardy 951 Hildesheim Lombardy Italy Hideshiem
Column of Bishop Bernward spiraling (blank) displayed events from Christ's life and culminated with a now lost (blank) at the very top. Spiraling along its surface are the (blank)scenes.
Crucifix reliefs Old and New Testament
Gero Crucific shows a suffering, dying Christ, his outstretched arms pulled by his sagging weight, his knees turned as his body sways, and his head is sunken in death. This is a turning point: reemergence of (blank) in Western Art. The artist created bold expressive forms, such as the (blank) and (blank) treatment of hair and cloth.
monumental sculpture patterning abstract
The Pramonstratensian Church's weighty (blank), smooth brick wall surface, and luminosity ultimately depend on (blank) architecture, especially the (blank).
piers Roman basilica
Around (blank)AD, Basilica type (with (blanK), side (blank), and (blanK)) churches built with certain modifications. One characteristic was development of (blanK), either radiating from the (blank) or from the (blank) or from both.
1100 nave aisles aspe chapels apse transept
ABBEY of Conques was situated on a pilgrimage route that led from (blank) to (blank) in (blank).
Le Puy Santiago Campostela
The Abbey of Conques was the destination of many (blank) who came to worship the relics of (blank), which were used to perform a number of miracles.
Like the ABBEY of Conques, the churches were built as simple, unidirectional flow of space from the entrance on the (blank) end of the (blank)to the (blank) in the (blank) was now modified. The new churches slowed the movement through the (blank) by dividing and subdividing it into careful articulated compartments. Heavy (blank) and (blank)carrying ponderous around-headed (blank) marked square bays along the (blank) and (blanK). The weight and surface of the wall were stressed, and the individual unites of space and decoration had a new aesthetic and structural independence.
west basilica altar east nave piers columns arches nave transept
At first these churches had (blank) roofs, but they gave way to (blank). (blank), (blank), and (blank) provided a new unity and weight. The (blank) carried the articulation of individual bays from one side of the (blanK) to the other and thus further compartmentalized the churches.
timber stone vaults Barrel vaults groin vaults rib vaults rib vaults nave
What is significant of the Notre-Dame-La -Grande?
extensive sculptural decoration on the outside of a church
At Notre-Dame-La -Grande, Poitiers, the flattened pattern around the (blank) and upper (blank) emphasizes the massiveness of the architecture.
When was Abbey church, Maria Laach, built?
This Benedictine abbey church in Maria Laach commisioned by (blank). This love of division, of segmentation, is also seen on the exteriors of the churches, which often are majestic in their size, weight, volume.
The monastery at Cluny followed Benedictine rule and became the order that was most powerful religious force in Western Christendom till middle of 12th was founded when?
The Prophet Jeremiah is displayed as an elongated figure of Jeremiah, twist across the (blank) with an anguished energy.
The sculptor of this capital at the Deconsecrated Lluniac church, in Marssur-Allier was particularly skilled in decoration of architectural form and (blank) shape. Here the charming, grotesque monsters complement and enhance the shape of (blank) but never mask its (blank) shape.
abstract capital functional
Who and When was the Last Judgement, Tympanum made and where?
Saint-Lazare Cathedral 1150 Gislebertus
In the Last Judgement, Tympanum, everything centers on the flattened, elongated, spectral figure of (blank) dispensing judgment. Around this frightening figure the tumult of Judgment Day unfolds. The souls of mankind appear in long register at (blank) of tympanum, where they are either welcomed into heaven at (blank), or damned to hell, at (blank).
Christ bottom left right
The (blank) of Reims Cathedral demonstrates how Gothic architects achieved a harmony of tall (blank), (blank), and (blank), all realized with a sense of litheness and grace that belies the massiveness of structure which they compose. Inside the cathedral, reality was transformed into a transcendent embrace of light streaming through curtains of (blanK) that seemed suspended from heaven. Within these gossamer walls, the cathedral affirmed the reality of God and man's place in His cosmos.
nave piers columns vaults stained glass
Western European cities flourished, increased manufacturing, expanded trade, and rise of universities between what years?
1100 and 1400
Who did the famous act was to restore the ABBEY Church of Saint-Denis for he inaugurated the Gothic style of architecture?
Abbot Suger employed what to the ABBEY Church of Saint-Denis?
Pointed arches cross-ribbed vaults, tall windows filled what he called the"light of Divine essence."
During the development of scholasticism, who said "There is no good use without art"?
Saint Thomas Aquinas
The Chartres Cathedral was a (blank) holy place. Later a grotto(blank) was built which had an image of the (blank).
What happened to the Chartres Cathedral in 1020 and 1194?
a fire then it was reconstructed till another fire had it destroyed.
In the Chartres Cathedral fire of 1194, what was discovered in the rubble and what did it proved?
Virgin's dress holiness
The two towers of the west front of Chartres Cathedral are of different periods. The northern, on the left, was begun about (blank) but completed only in the (blank) with an upper level. The foundation of the more sober right tower, the southern, dates about (blank). By (blank) the aisles and nave were complete.
1135 16th 1145 1220
The Chartres Cathedral was dedicated as it was finished with donations from the French Royal family in what year?
The vaults of the Chartres Cathedral 120ft above the pavement as they rise on compound (blank) composed of (blank) and (blank) elements. The huge windows with radiant (blank)stained glass, and towering (blank) thrust uplift the soul. The compound pier, made up of bundled shafts and columns, breaks up the surface of the support and makes it look less massive. The (blank) gives power and emphasis to the upward movement of the walls. The (blank), which replaced the old, heavier groin or barrel vault, is more lightly and gracefully covers the church.
piers octagonal round rib vaults pointed arch rib vault
North Rose Window of the Chartres Cathedral depicts many images of (blank), the (blank), and the saints, the windows at Chartres illustrate the (blanK), the work of the traders, (blank), and stories from both the (blank).
Christ Virgin Labors of the Months Virtues and Vices Old and new Testaments
Old Testament figures from the West Portal, Chartres Cathedral is attached to a (blank) on the back. The figures are probably (blank) of the Old Testament. The figures' robes seem (blank) rather than (blank). The constant tension between figure and column, between the expression of the human body and face and the image's role as a sort of (blank), is part of the appeal of these beautiful wraiths.
column Kings and Queens incised carved caryatid
At the West Façade of Reims Cathedral is the Annunciation and Visitation. When was it made?
At the West Façade of Reims Cathedral the Visitation group was about what and when was it made?
the Virgin and Saint Elizabeth, rejoicing in each other's pregnancy, 1280.
At the West Façade of Reims Cathedral is the Annunciation. What was it about?
the angel and the Virgin.
At the West Façade of Reims Cathedral is the Annunciation and Visitation. Where would the sculptor get his ideas on creating these carvings?
Roman art based on toga-clad sculptors.
At the West Façade of Reims Cathedral is the Annunciation and Visitation. Which of them would be and example of the revival of realism since antiquity?
Who are the Old Testament figures from the North Portal from Chartres Cathedral from left to right?
Melchizedek, Abraham, Isaac, Moses, Samuel, and David.
What is an important significance dispaly of the Old Testament figures from the North Portal from Chartres Cathedral?
Who were Ekkehard and Uta?
Margrave Ekkehard von Wettin and his wife, the Marchioness Uta were 2 of the 10 founders of the Naumburg Cathedral in 1028
Ekkehard and Uta has far less to do with portraiture than it does with symbolism. What was its purpose?
demonstrate the historical origins of Naumburg and its cathedral
Why was the Virgin so popular?
chief intercessor between human beings and Christ, express the qualities of beauty, grace, fertility, warmth, motherhood, nurturing, and protectiveness, queen of heaven and earth
Late (blank) after invention of printing connoisseurs of books wanted these unique volumes, written and illustrated by scribes and painters of uncommon skill.
Jean Le Noir, The Adoration of the Magi, from the Hours of Jeanne De Navarre was made for who?
Jeanne de Navarre, daughter of Louis X and Queen of Navarre
In Jean Le Noir, The Adoration of the Magi, from the Hours of Jeanne De Navarre, how is she shown?
kneeling in the margin decoration below the main scene.
How else is Jean Le Noir, The Adoration of the Magi, from the Hours of Jeanne De Navarre decorated?
forms of foliage little animals
In Jean Le Noir, The Adoration of the Magi, from the Hours of Jeanne De Navarre the (blank) of each of the (blank) is carefully held in check; deep (blank) recession, which would shatter the plane(blank) of the page, is stopped by a decorative (blank) that fills the background. The illuminators were interested in patterns that would complement the (blank) of the page and its text. Exquisite multicolored (blank) and meandering tendrils enclose the illustration and decorate the page with elegant (blank)forms.
space illuminations spatial pattern flatness borders 2-D
Nicola's best-known achievement is a series of carved pulpits, including One for baptistery at (blank) and later 1 for (blank).
Pisa Siena Cathedral
In Nicola's time an ancient Roman (blank) incorporated in the facade of Pisa Cathedral provided the models for the seated Virgin in his Adoration of the Magi. The connection between the goddess (blank) on the sarcophagus and Virgin of Nicola's pulpit was noted by Florentine biographer (blank) in 13th.
sarcophagus Phaedra Vasari
Nicola has given human (blank) various roles to play- from grotesque figure of "unbatized" humanity crouching at base of central column, to dignified magisterial figures of biblical character such as (blank) and (blank) and adoring kings to personifications of virtues, ideas, and history.
forms Mary Joseph
In Nicola, Pisano, Personification of Fortitude (Details of Pulpit) made in 1260, what was the influence for this carving?
An ancient Roman sarcophagus was reused as a tomb on it was the ancient hero Hercules who was modeled for the Christian virtue Fortitude.
What were the pulpits used for? What did Nicola Pisano added to these pulpits?
delivering sermons narrative relief panels and other figural decorations.
In Nicola Pisano, Pulpit, Baptistery of Pisa Cathedral what is supported by the base? What do they signify?
In Nicola Pisano, Pulpit, Baptistery of Pisa Cathedral there is a series of prophets and evangelist flank in personifications of virtues. What are they?
Temperance, Charity, Fortitude, Faith, John the Baptist.
Nicola and Giovanni Pisano added 2 sources for future artist. What were they?
antiquity and individual experience
Who is Cimabue?
a Florentine painter one of the founders of the Florentine school influence on painting all over Tuscany in late 13th and early 14th
When did Cimabue painted the Crucifix and for what and where?
1290 Franciscan church of Santa Croce in Florence
Cimabue Crucifix demonstrates (blank) and (blank) unseen since Roman times. Christ is dead. His giant, ponderous, but beautifully articulated body hangs limp on the cross, all signs of life extinguished. This is an interpretation of a lifeless, hanging Christ which evokes pity and sorrow for the pain and sacrifice of Passion and crucifixion.
How does Cimabue Crucifix offer comfort and whose idea during this time did it came from? Christ had become more like the worshipers themselves, a human being who has lived and died, but who will be reborn.
Giotto rethought religious imagery. He turned old (blank)into stories that relate directly to observer and his world.
Giotto Ognissanti Madonna was made in the Franciscan church of Santa Croce in Florence. How does he present Madonna and child?
The saints whose overlapping bodies creates layers of space within the space enclosing architecture of throne.
Giotto Ognissanti Madonna is not in symbolic space but how is it displayed?
in the world of observer and communicant
The decorative and narrative scheme for Giotto Arena Chapel chapel was to influence to chapel paintings in what?
Giotto's Lamentation of Christ is shown as Christ's body had been placed on the ground. Mary Magdalene at feet of Christ, is John the Evangelist flinging his arms in horror, Virgin desperately searching Christ's face for sign of life, and anonymous boulder like figures whose very inertia and weight somehow express depression and grief all add particular and subtle notes of sadness to this scene.Heaven and earth are in mourning as the shrieks of twisting, wailing angels mingle with the moans and sighs of Christ's followers. What literature would this be based on during this time and what type of painting is it?
Duccio Di Buoninsege, Maesta Altarpiece, is shown as the front is (blank) and colors represent wealth and devotion of (blank) and her citizens. Painted are the (blank), rows of svelte angels and saints.
gold Siena Madonna
Simone Martini Annuciation shows the divine laurel-crowned messenger offers a branch to Mary, who, in human reaction, recoils with fear at apparition before her. Pulling up her robe to her cheek in a gesture of fear or modesty, the Virgin turns away, her body describing a series of graceful, languid arabesques, more contour and rhythm than volume and mass. What are 3 props adds to importance in this painting?
the lilies, branch and Holy Ghost.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti Rapolano Madonna shows a fundamentally human essay on love of mother and child for each other, pressing her cheek to her son's, the Madonna has a faraway, mournful look. What is the symbolism behind the Virgin's sadness? How is in someway realistic?
Christ will die on the cross. A sadness every mother feels, knowing that her child will someday part from her to begin a life of his own.
The bubonic plague (Black Death) spread from Messina in Sicily, moved through Italy, north to Paris, Flanders, England, and to Scotland and Ireland. What year did it happened?
Andrea Di Cione (called Orcagna), Strozzi Altarpiece was made when and where?
1354-57. Strozzi family chapel of Santa Maria Novella.
Andrea Di Cione influenced by the spatially ambiguous style. What artist created this style?
Florence had transformed (blank) and (blank) into Florentine possessions. Her cathedral, (blank), was being built, and the Florentine baptistery was project for decoration (it dates (blank)). 1st of 3 sets of bronze doors had been commissioned from the sculptor (blank). Signed in (blank) the doors recounted episodes from life of (blank), and the project was halted because of (blank). (blank) it was the merchants' guild that decided to revive its patronage.
Pisa Lucca Santa Maria del Fiore 1100-1150 Andrea Pisano 1330 John the Baptist Black Death 1401
who were the two finalist that made Sacrifice of Isaac for the 2 set of bronze doors and when?
Ghiberti Brunelleschi 1402
Donatello (b.1386) began his career around (blank) as an assistant to (blank) on the baptistery doors.
Donatello, Saint George was made when is considered what type of medium?
1415-7. monumental sculpture
According to legend, Saint George was a knight who had rescued a maiden from a dragon and converted her family to (blank) . (blank) shows him victorious in this monumental sculpture, his posture and expression displaying his (blank). Here Saint George transcends both his material and symbolic origins and becomes real.
Christianity Donatello courage
Brunelleschi cupola of the Duomo consisted of 2 (blank), 1 inside the other. The smaller, inner shell was thicker and supported most of the weight; it was joined to the thinner, outer shell with common (blank). A stairway between the shells (where one can still walk) was used instead of (blank) for the workers.
shells ribbing scaffolding
Who contributed to rebuilding of the main body of San Lorenzo and when?
Brunelleschi Cosimo de' Medici
When did Masaccio painted frescoes of the life of Saint Peter to the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carime, a working calls neighborhood?
Masaccio Saint Peter healing with his Shadow displays fictive space through rational systems of illusion. What is the perspective?
linear and aerial
In Bernardo Rossellino Tomb of Leonardo Brui, he is crowned by laurel leaves. What do they symbolized?
In Bernardo Rossellino Tomb of Leonardo Brui the lunette is reserved for what sacred emblem?
Madonna and child
In Piero Della Francesca, The Duke and duchess of Urbino in Umbria, what are the duke's and dutchess names and his position?
Federico de Montefeltro Battista general
When was Piero Della Francesca, Sigismondo Malatesta Adoring Saint Sigsmund Tempio Malatestiano was made?
In Piero Della Francesca, Sigismondo Malatesta Adoring Saint Sigsmund Tempio Malatestiano who shows the actual subject of power?
Donatello, Gattamelata was an inspiration for what other artists?
Verrochio, Leonardo and Giovanni Bologna
Donatello, Gattamelata was influenced by perhaps what other sculputre in antiquity?
Roman equestrian statue
Pius ascended to the papacy as Pope Pius II, who was a native of the town, changed the name of the town from Corisgeno to Pienza to honor himself and began rebuilding the town center to make it more modern and worthy of the great honor he bestowed on it. What year did these events start happen?
under the direction of an architect, probably the Florentine Bernardo Rossellino the buildings (a new and luminous cathedral, a town hall, a bishop's palace, and a large palazzo for the Piccolominis Pius's family, were built, all connected by their mutual access off the main piazza of the newly renamed city) of Pienza began to take shape. When did these events happened?
1459 and 1464
When were Piero Della Francesca, Invention of the True Cross and recognition of the True Cross made and where?
1452-57 church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo
Giovanni di Pablo's Beheading of Saint John the Baptist may have been an influence for what group of artists in the 20th?
Hans Memlinc, Shirne of Saint Ursula was produced for?
hospital of Saint John in the Flemish city of Bruges
What does the scroll read on Moses left hand in Claus Sluter, Well of Moses?
The Children of Israel do not listen to me
Jan Van Eyek is one of the earliest depictions of (blank) that diffused through the atmosphere and reflected and absorbed by various objects.
Jan Van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban was made in what year and what medium?
1433 mixture of oil and tempera paints
What did Hugo Van Der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece contain?
portraits of Tommaso Portinari, his wife, and children.
What would the center panel of did Hugo Van Der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece display?
Adoration of the Shepherds
What was Hugo Van Der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece commishioned for?
church of Sant' Egidio in Florence.
In Hugo Van Der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece the lilies in the still-life symbolize the (blank); the light passing through the glass represents the (blank), the body of (blank), whose infant form is presented to the communicant above the (blank).
Virgin Eucharistic wafer Christ grain
Michael Pacher Saint WolfGang Altarpiece carved in (blank) was one of the altar painting made as the (blank), an elaborately carved wooden altarpiece, often with many (blank), which had fully round and (blank) images of saints and biblical scenes.
Schnialtar wings relief limewood
Michael Pacher Saint WolfGang Altarpiece was made where?
church of Saint Wolfgang on the Aberseen in Austria
Michael Pacher Saint WolfGang Altarpiece recreated as what other artists work?
Filippo Lippi depicted in Coronation of the Virgin
In Michael Pacher Saint WolfGang Altarpiece Who were the 2 human attendants?
St. Nicholas and St. Wolfgang
Bernt Notke, Saint George and the dragon was a commeroation of what?
victory of the Swedish army under the regent Sten Sture over the Danes
Bernt Notke, Saint George and the dragon combines what two art ideas?
equestrian statue with tomb sculpture
Martin Schongauer, one of the earliest masters of the print, worked in a medium-engraving. What is a medium-engraving?
a copper plate was incised with a burin, then ink and pressed on paper
Martin Luther had nailed his 95 thesis to the door of Wittenberg Cathedral, crystallizing the Reformation movement and setting the Reformers on a path that would end the church. What year did this event took place?
What is a woodcut?
made by cutting away wood except for the lines upon which ink is to be rolled to register the image on paper
What does the cat and other forest creatures symbolize in Albrecht Duere, Adam and Eve?
nature and consequences of the Fall
What was the point of Albrecht Duere, Melancholia I?
technical mastery was achievable, but artistic endeavors often led the artist to the unknown and the unreachable.
In Mathis Gothert Neithart (Matthias Grunewald) Crucifixion, from the Iseniheim Altarpiece was made when?
In Mathis Gothert Neithart (Matthias Grunewald) Crucifixion, from the Iseniheim Altarpiece waS commisioned for where?
Antonite Monastery at Isenheim
In Mathis Gothert Neithart (Matthias Grunewald) Crucifixion, St. John points to Christ and says, in words written behind him, "He must increase, but I must decrease" (John 3:30). What was the significance of this?
The crucifixion offers hope for salvation through Christ's sacrifice, but dwells on the mortal pain and physical degradation of the act on crucifixion.
What was Matthais Grunewald, Tempatation of Saint Anthony based on?
an engraving by the print maker and painter Martin Schongauer.
In Matthais Grunewald, Tempatation of Saint Anthony, the monsters from Grunewald's strange imagination are the natural inhabitants of the dead and threatening bewitched landscape in which they exist. The bloated man dressed only in a hood in the painting's lower left corner is covered with huge, oozing sores, and writhers in pain. How was this viewed?
As sympathy and understanding by the Antonito brothers and their patients who prayed for healing.
Who was Pieter Bueghel the Elder Hunters in the Snow painted for?
the banker Nicoals Jonghelinck of Antwerp
How should Pieter Bueghel the Elder Hunters in the Snow be viewed?
Seasons, weather, landscape, and vegetation affects the lives of people who live, work in and reap the bounty of the natural world.
Peter Brueghel The Elder Magpie on the Gallows is based on what?
invasion of Brussels by the Spanish
Rusidael, Cuyp, and Konick, the great landscape painters of Holland and Flanders, as well as Brouer, van Ostade, Hals and Steen studied what artist?
Age of Exploration and Expansion, Age of Reformation, Age of Scientific Rebirth, Golden Age, Age of the High Renaissance happened in what century?
Leonard Da Vinci drawing ability earned him an apprenticeship about (blank)with the Florentine painter, (blank).
1466 Andrea del Verrocchio
Leonardo Da Vinci began shaping his figures from the outset as structures of (blank).
light and dark
Leonardo Da Vinci Adoration of the Magi displayed (blank) that lead nowhere and (blank) that rush off into infinity.
Leonardo Da Vinci Lady with the Ermine theory on (blank) was that it should fall in front of the face nd the face should be placed before (blank) ground so it would acquire volume through (blank).
light dark contrast
(blank) studied the Last Supper and it became the basis for his essay of figures in architecture: (blank). (blank) and (blank) borrowed from it in the 17th, (blank) 19th.
Rapahel School of Athens Rubens Rembrandt Ingres
Leonardo's art grew out of (blank), (blank), (blank) and (blank).
Simone Martini Ghiberti Fra Angelico Verrocchio
Michelangelo grew out of the monumental figure that trace back to (blank), (blank), and (blank).
Giotto Masaccio Donatello
Michelangelo Buonarroti became an apprentice to Domenico Ghirlandaio, but his gift brought him to the attention of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who invited the youth to study the ancient works in his sculpture garden. What year did he became an apprentice?
Michelangelo Buonarroti Sistine Chapel Ceiling has over 300 figures, 9 scenes from (blank), 12 prophets and sibyls, and numerous nudes.
Michelangelo Buonarroti Creation of Man in the Sistine Chapel Ceiling expresses, though tracing the fall of man from (blank), the ceiling in fact celebrates the rise of man, whose beauty and perfection are gifts of God. The figure representing God recalls the great (blank) of antiquity.
Michelangelo Buonarroti was heir of Florentine (blank) and its belief in the inherent-dignity of man.
Raphael Santi joined a workshop of (blank), an Umbrian painter of (blank) and sun-filled landscape.
Raphael Santi Deposition of Christ was commissioned for who and where?
church of San Francesco al Prato at Perugia by Atlaenta Baglioni
Donato Bramante Tempietto (San pietro in Montorio) has (blank) columns and other antique forms in the service of a Christian building. A row of (blank) set on a circular base surrounds the dome covered sanctuary enshrining the spot where Saint Peter was martyred.
Venetian artist endowed traditional types and subjects with new meaning while redefining and expanding the nature and scope of painting itself from (blank) (1430 to 1516) to (blank) (1528-1588).
Giovanni Bellini Paolo Veroneso
Tiziano Vecellio began his career with an apprenticeship to (blank), an artist and was followed by study with (blank)(c. 1478-1510).
Giovanni Bellini Giorgione
In the Church of the Frari in Venice what is the 1st if the 2nd was Pesaro Alterpiece?
Assumption of Mary
In Tiziano Vecellio Pesaro Alterpiece how is Bishop Jacop Persaro depicted?
kneeling before St. Peter and the Virgin Mary
In Tiziano Vecellio Pesaro Alterpiece, behind Pesaro a warrior saint guards the bishop's infidel captive while, to the right, other members of the Pesaro family, accompanied by (blank) and (blank), kneel in adoration. The Virgin, saints, and donors are at a (blank), and viewer's glance rushes into space along the stairs, the Madonna's throne and huge columns.
St Anthony St Francis diagonal
In Tiziano Vecellio Pesaro Alterpiece, the (blank)movement combines with the upward motion of columns towering above the clouds to imply a vast extension of space. Titian also welded the forms together with a single (blank) source, which creates broad areas of highlight and shadow (blanK). This theme set the inspiration for a new style called the (blank).
spatial light Baroque
Jacopo Robusti or Tintoretto Removal of the Body of Saint Mark was made when and where?
1562 Scuola Grande Di san Marco.
In Paolo Veronese, Apotheosis of Venice, the allegorical figure of Venice, seen as a beautifully dress woman crowned by (blank) , ascends to heaven on a cloud bank surrounded by the (blank) and adored by her subjects.
Michelangelo Merisi Di Caravaggio The Calling of Saint Matthew was made when and where?
1599-1600 San Luigi del Francesi
Who may have helped commisioned Michelangelo Merisi Di Caravaggio The Calling of Saint Matthew?
Cardinal Del Monte
Michelangelo Merisi Di Caravaggio painted The Calling of Saint Matthew and (blank)for the Contarelli Chapel of San Luigi de Francesi.
The Martydom of Saint Matthew
In Michelangelo Merisi Di Caravaggio The Calling of Saint Matthew, the divine hand (last seen in the (blank) by Michelangelo) bathed in light transforms reality into a miracle.
Creation of Adam
In Michelangelo Merisi Di Caravaggio Entombment where did he borrow the motifs from two famous works?
Michelangelo's Pieta and Raphael's Entombment.
Caravaggio's followers manipulated reality or affect the emotions of the viewer, but the dramatic contrasts of light and dark, ordinary settings and characters, and (blank) themes trace their origins to Caravaggio, where influence was sufficiently broad as to earn the name (blank).
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa was made when and where?
1645-52 Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria Della Vittoria,
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa follows the text of Teresa's own account of her (blank) quite literally, was an attempt to inspire (blank).
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa main particular emphasis was? be specific on this term?
"transverberation" the piercing of her heart by divine lore.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Saint Peter's Piazza walls was somewhat similar to what other building?
Sant' Andrea al Quirinale
Rubens did a cycle of 21 oil paintings for Queen Mother of France, (blank), a member of the wealthy and famous Florentine family.
Marie de' Medici
In Peter Paul Rubens, Presentation of the Portrait of Marie de' Medici, his draftsmanship and his study and total comprehension of Titian, (blank), and Michelangelo are apparent in the magnificent figures of Jupiter and Juno.
Diego Velazquez, Philip IV on Horseback was painted where?
Hall of Realms, in the Buen Retiro palace
Diegao Velazquez adopted the grandiose language of history painting, as it had been established by (blank) in the Vatican Stanze.
What is genre painting?
Portraits, landscapes stilllifes, interiors, town views, seascapes, and scenes of daily life
Who commissioned and to commemorate what in the painting of Pieter Jansz Sanenredam Old Town Hall of Amsterdam?
city of Amsterdam its old seat of government.
In Saenredam. Interior of the church of Saint Odulphus, Assendelft, the old (blank) church there was stripped of its altarpiece and decorations during the Reformation. Its tombs remained and Saenredam faithfully transcribe the tomb slab (in the foreground) that holds his father's remains, as well as larger tomb that is the burial place of the lords of the city.
What is a still life?
various objects are assembled and portraying emblems of vanity and momentrines of this world
What is a Pronk still life?
portrayed magnificent and expensive imported objects such as Chinese porcelain and Venetian glass
Jacob van Ruisdael paintings influenced 19th English painters, including (blank) and (blank).
When was Frans Hals Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Militia Company made and where?
Frans Hals Laughing Cavalier anticipated the loose and painterly quality of the oiled medium later rendered by (blank) and (blank).
Rembrandt van Rijn Self-Portrait in 1640 may have been influenced by what painting and by who?
Titian the Man with the Blue Sleeve
Rembrandt's earliest narrative painting was influenced by the work of (blank)and his Northern followers.
Rembrandt van Rijn made later Self-portrait sometime during the 1650's. What was the exact year?
In the art of the 18th excvations at Pompeii and Herculaneum in 1738 and 1748 established the discipline of archaeology and inspired a (blank)that eventually affected everything from fashion to furniture styles.
In the art of the 18th, the language, manners, customs, and styles of France increasingly shaped the rest of Europe. The (blank)- the frothy antithesis of the sober precepts of the classicists- was born.
The (blank) was an institution established in the previous century. In 1737 they held history paintings (pictures of historical, biblical, or mythological narratives) that began to stage annual (blank), or exhibitions, open to the public. These Salons spawned the careers of professional art critics, who offered opinions, evaluations, and interpretations for the art-going public.
French Royal Academy Salons
Jean-Antoine Watteau gain membership into the French Academy, with what painting and when was it made?
Pilgrims leaving the Island of Cythera 1717
In Jean-Antoine Watteau Pilgrims leaving the Island of Cythera is an oil painting exemplified by the (blank) of the 16th and by (blank) and (blank).
Venetians Rubens Van Dyck
In Francois Boucher Jupiter in the Guise of Diana Seducing Callisto, where does this them come from and what group of artists popularized it in what century?
Ovid Venetians 16th
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin Still Life realness was a healthy antidote to the dreamy ephemera of (blank) and (blank).
Chardin was a master at conveying the tactility of objects- their hardness or softness, temperature, and weight. He shared this ability with his great Northern predecessors (blank) and (blank).
Jan Vermeer Jan Van Eyck
Gabriel-Germain Boffarnd Salon of the Princess, Hotel de Soubise was made when and where?
Gabriel-Germain Boffarnd Salon of the Princess, Hotel de Soubise had paintings by what who and what were they about?
Charles-Joseph Natoire Cupid and Psyche
The paintings in Gabriel-Germain Boffarnd Salon of the Princess, Hotel de Soubise is related to what other painting done by Watteau?
Pilgrims Leaving the Island of Cythera
Balthasar Neumann, one of the principal German architects of the 18th, also designed the Residenz at Wurzburg, where (blank) painted a fresco masterpiece.
William Hogarth "Rakewell Takes Possession," from the series The Rake's progress was made when?
William Hogarth "Rakewell Takes Possession," from the series The Rake's progress used what type of medium?
Sir Joshua Reynolds was influenced by what other artists?
Van Dyck Michelangelo Raphael Venetians of 16th
In William Hogarth Sarah Siddons as the Tragic Muse, a famous actress is shown as the muse of tragedy, surrounded by various figure and attributes, such as (blank) and (blank), which comment on and amplify the theme of (blank).
Pity Terror tragedy
In William Hogarth Sarah Siddons as the Tragic Muse, her pose recalls Michelangelo's great (blank) and (blank) on the Sistine ceiling, whereas the rich painterly and atmospheric quality derives from (blank) and (blank).
sibyls prophets Rembrandt Venetians
Patrons of the rich and gentry who considered a tour of the European continent a necessary part of every gentlemen's education. What is this term?
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Apollo Bringing the Bride, ceiling of the Kaiseraal, Residenz, Wurzburg was made when?
Giovanni Battista Piranesi largest study of antiquities is what and completed when?
4th volume Antichita Romane 1756
In France, the (blank)style emerged with particular power in the hands of Jacques-Louis David.
David's inspiration for the Death of Marat was not ancient models but (blank)'s pietas and 's realistic portrayals of martyrdoms, a famous icon of the revolution and (blank).
Titian Caravaggio Neoclassicism
Antonio Canova was particularly inspired by the (blank) antiquates newly found in the excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Karl Langhans Brandenburg Gate was an inspiration by the famous building of the ancient world, the (Blank) on the Athenian Acropolis.
Thomas Jefferson was especially influenced by (blank) (1508-1580), an architect whose books and building had been restudied earlier in the 18th, especially in England.
In art as emotion: The 1st half of the 19th, (blank), though as loose and imprecise terms, reflects the movement of writers, musicians, painters, sculptors away from nationalism toward the more subjective side of human experience. Feeling became both the subject and object of art and finding expression among artist in France, Spain, and Germany as well as England.
Franciso Jose de Goya y Lucientes influenced later artist French romantic such as (blank) and (blank).
Theodre Gericault studied with artist but influenced by Baron (blank), a painter, who studied with David and was a link between David and new generation of French painters of the early 19th.
Gericault found the irrational compelling by mad men and women. Gericault studied the faces of those actually insane (disturbed and frightening creatures). These images explore various forms of madness as some of them reminiscent of portraits by the mature artist (blank).
For composition and for poses of men and women shown in The Raft of the Medusa, Theodre Gericault looked at past art (from (blank) and (blank) whose influence is strong in the figure types and gestures).
Delacroix studied briefly with the academic painter (blank), who had also taught Gericault, but Delacroix had little interest with systematic method and classicizing subjects (blank) propounded.
Pierre-Narcissse Guerin Guerin
Delacroix was interested in the directions taken by (blank), (blank), and (blank). He was self-taught from looking at works from (blank), (blank), and (blank) in the Louvre, and he made observation about his art in his journal.
Goya Gros Gericault Michelangelo Rubens Titian
Under (blank) influence, Eugene Delacroix Death of the Sardanapalus created a wild scene of writhing struggle and death. (blank) made by Thepodre Gericault in 1819 is a reminiscence picture of the visual excitement and power.
Rubens The Raft of Medusa
Eugene Delacroix Women of Algiers was to have great influence on the (blank), who found, especially in this palette and its depiction of textures, a source of inspiration.
To help with creation of Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres Napolean I on the Imperial Throne, he studied (blank) art, (blank) ivories depicting emperors, and perhaps medieval manuscripts.
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres Madame Moitessier pose was derived from a painting of a goddess that had been unearthed from the ruins of (blank)
Ingres studied the works of (blank) and his contemporaries. Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres Madame Moitessier recalls a (blank) portrait.
In Caspar David Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon, a quiet, meditative melancholy and the object of the couple's gaze- the moon -became a popular themes not only in painting but in the poetry and music of the period. In particular, (blank) and have connections with Friedrich's paintings.
John Mallord William Turner employed the visual devices of the past, particularly the exaggerated perspective of (blank) and the scum bled, molten paint surface developed by (blank), he looked toward the future.
John Constable views of nature followed the traditions of Dutch masters such as (blank) and (blank).
John Constable also experimented with different techniques, such as stippling the canvas with white flecks to capture the effect of wet leaves and dew, or incorporating dots of red that would make the green of the vegetation stand out and register more prominently. These attempts were an important inspiration to the later (blank).
(blank) (gone in and out of style at regular intervals) was joined with revivals of (blank) art, (blank) art, and art of the (blank). These revivals were important for architecture.
Classicism gothic Egyptian Renaissance
(blank) a group of French artist debated who would, a century later, be regarded as greatest painters of 2nd ½ of the 19th, they predicted on (Blank)(1825-1905) and (Blank) (1815-1891), celebrated exhibitors in Salon and laden with honors.
1890 Adolphe-William Bouruerau J.L.E Meissonies
1848 one of the earliest groups of French artists to work outside the Academy was Theodore Rousseau and Jean-Francois Millet. They abandoned the Paris revolution for the (blank) near village of Barbizon. They were inspired by (Blank).
Forest of Fontainebleau Constable
Numerous painters, including Corot, Daubigny and Millet, painted at the Forest of Fontainebleau as well as earned him a reputation as a landscape painter among Delacroix and George Sand. This was a mingling of observation and artifact, a "portrait" of a place, a record of the individual characteristics of each tree. These influence the (blank) painters from 1860s on.
Theodore Rousseaut was shared by other painters of the Barbizon school, (blank) (1817-1878) and (blank) (1796-1875).
Francois Daugbigny Camille Corot
Gustave Courbet learned the rudiments of his profession from studying the works of (blank) in the Louvre.
Gustave Courbet coined the term to define his interest in the actual circumstances of his day. What was this term?
A trip to Italy in 1853 and Holland in 1856 exposed Edoward Manet to the same masters who had so profoundly interpreted realism in the past: (blank) (blank) and (blank).
Velazquez Titian Frans Hals
Alexander Cabanel Birth of Venus was based on earlier versions of the theme to?
Botticelli's Birth of Venus
The (blank) were a group of artist: Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894), Mary Cassatt (1845-1926), Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Jean-Frederic Bazille (1841-1879), Claude Monet (1834-1917) and occasionally Edgar Degas (1834-1917) met regularly at small restaurants (Café Gerbois) discussing painting and stressed the need for recording momentary sensations on canvas, and the importance of spontaneity.
Claude Monet's childhood was spent in the port town of Le Havre and taken his early painting lessons there from the painter (blank)(1824-1898).
The Impressionist (except for Manet) gathered together as the "Societe Anonyme des Artists Peintres, sculptures, and gravures." What year did this event happened?
This gave the group's name, the Impressiontists, by the critic (blank) shortly after the exhibit.
Edgar Degas interest in the figure may have developed with his academic training with (blank), a pupil of Ingres.
During the 1850s Edgar Degas traveled to Italy to study Renaissance pieces, although (blank) himself remained a lifelong idol.
Mary Cassatt Woman in Black was inspired by (blank) and recently (blank), where gaudily colored images crated designs on a flat surface, Cassatt juxtaposed near and far, dark and light, large and small.
Degas imported Japanese prints
James Abbott McNeill Whistler studied with Gleyre, the academic painter who had taught a number of the Impressionists. Whistler befriended (blank), emulating his bohemian life-style.
James Abbott McNeill Nocturne in Black and Gold: The falling Rocket connected with works of what music composer?
Thomas Eakins, an american painter, was in Paris 1866 to 1869 where he saw works of Manet, Courbet, and other (blank). studied and Ribera understanding the human figure.
Realists Velazquez Rembrandt
In 1886, the French people donated to America the Statue of Liberty, made by the sculptor (blank) (1834-1904).
Auguste Rodin inspired by the work of what two sculptors of the Old Masters?
Donatello and Michelangelo.
Paul Cézanne influence was the (blank) and exhibited with them in their 1st show in 1874.
Georges Seurat devised a system of painting called (blank) or divisionism (scientifically erroneous theory), in which dots of pure primary colors set side by side were supposed to mix in the viewer's eye.
Vincent van Gogh was influenced by (blank), (blank), Herni de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) and Paul Gauguin.
Gustav Klimt became president of (blank), an organization of younger artists who left the Academy and dedicated to elevating Austrian Art in the artistic communities.
Edvard Munch absorbed style and vision of the French Impressionists, (blank) and (blank).
van Gogh Gauguin
Edvard Munch paintings inspired young local artist to split away from the existing society and form the (blank), which became a point of departure for later generation of artists soon to be known as (blank).
Berliner Secession German Expressionists
At Salon d' Automne (Autumn salon), a group of young painters including Matisse, Derain, and Vlaminck displayed paintings of colors, forms, and nonillusionistc imagery that they were called (blank) (the Wild Beasts).
Andre Derain friendship with (blank) taught him to appreciate color, his exposure to African art, and inspired him to search for forms in his own art.
Andre Derain followed in (blank)'s footsteps by painting views of the Thames in Effects of Sunlight, but his formal inspiration came from and Post-Impressionists.
Monet van Gogh
Pablo Ruiz y Picasso Les Demoiselles D'Avion inspiration was pre-Roman Iberian stone heads of his native Spain and by (blank) that were collected in Paris.
Pablo Ruiz y Picasso Girl with Madolin and Les Demoiselles D'Avion were ridicule by critics and given the term Cubism. Why did the critics gave it this term?
derived from a cube like arrangement of small planes
905 the Fauves were exhibiting in Paris, a group of artist in Germany, Ernst Ludwing Krichner (1880-1938), Paula Meder-Sohn-Becker (1876-1907) and Erich Heckel (1883-1970); formed a group called (blank) (the Bridge) in Dresdan.
The Die Brucke were the early German Expressionists. What does German Expressionists mean?
the human condition conveyed through evocative and emotional themes.
Ernest Ludwig Kirchner. Berlin Street Scene is a connection what famous work in history?
Gislebertus's Last Judgement.
Nolde's belief in cultural renewal through (blank) inspired his interest in African masks and prompted a trip to the South Seas in 1913 and 1914.
(Blank) (the Blue Rider) active in Munichbetween 1912 and 1916. What is the group called in German?
Der Blaue Reiter
Wassily Kandinsky published a book in 1902 called (blank) On the Spiritual in Art, he argued in order to speak directly to the soul one needs to avoid materialistic distractions.
On the Spiritual in Art
Umberto Boccioni was inspired by Marinetti's Manifesto of Futurist Painters, (blank) published in 1909.
Manifesto of Futurist Painters
Umberto Boccioni spoke of physical transcendentalism. What does this term mean?
a figure that seems to lift itself form material into spiritual.
Giacomo Balla neatly summed up in painting what the English photographer (blank)'s (1834-1904) multiple exposed photographs showed: the progressive placement of limbs when a body is in motion.
Marcel Duchamp took lessons of Cézanne, the (blank) (such as Odilon Redon (1840-1961), Cubists, and Futurists.
Louis Henry Sullivan Carson Pirie Scott and Company Store was built when and where?
In the hands of George Grosz, who saw humanity awash in the consequences of its own insanity, Duer's (blank) was reborn in 20th.
Kurt Schwitters assembled into delicate collages he named (blank) pictures (after Kommerzbank, or commence bank fragmenting words to coincide with his fragmented pictures).
Vladimir Tatlin, El Lissitzky, Naum Gabo, and Kasimir Malevich developed interpretations of European modernism. What were the these movements called during their times?
Rayonism, Supermatism and Constructivism
Vladimir Tatlin Model for the Monument to the Third International was inspired by what other artist?
El Lissitaky created projects, or "(blank)" which anticipated futuristic cities and have the feel of space stations or details from some highly complex industrial design.
Posters principal (blank), became important for artist, (blan), who designed posters for manifestoes, films, and beer.
mass communicator Alexander Rodchenko
1924 the writer Andre Breton, a leader of the group published his Manifesto of (blank). The members of the (blank): Max Ernst; Joan Miro, Giorgio de Chirico, and Rene Magritte.
In Giorgio de Chirico Melancholy and Mystery of a Street, the arcade to her right has the perspective of Munch's (blank), and commonplace environment in which she pursues her game is just as frightening.
In, Joan Miro enrolled in an art school, 1914 he exhibiting his works influenced by (blank), (blank) and Post-Impressionism.
Constantin Brancusi was was influenced by (blank)and the revolutionary developments in painting then unfolding in Paris.
Henry Moore, a British sculptor, was influenced by (blank) and (blank) and works.
Brancusi Columbian Renaissance.
Charles Edouward Jenneret-Gris, also called Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, Poissy, Seine-etoise was made when?
Charles Sheeler (1883-1965) born in Philadelphia, studied with the American painter William Merritt chase in New York. There the work of Matisse, Picasso, Cezanne, and Braque turned Sheeler toward (blank).
Charles Sheeler River Rouge Plant was the precursor of later realist painting, particularly the (blank) of 1960's and 1970's.
Inspired by Dutch art of 17th, a school of realists, known as the Eight or the (blank) for their portrayal of slum life and lower-class urban scenes. Led by (1865-1929) these artists supported themselves as newspaper illustrators.
Ashcan School Robert Henri
For (blank) the attitude of aesthetic qualities and human feelings were inseparable which shape his students George Bellows and Edward Hopper.
George Bellows Stag at Sharkey's is somewhat of a German (blank) painting, an objective depiction of the tough and durable temperament of these city dwellers, who seem to be modern descendants of (blank)'s rough men and women.
Edward Hopper Early Sunday Morning could be a street of any small American city, capturing a mood as effectively as any (blank) painting.
1966 Whitney Museum of American Art moved to its present location. These Museums and New York galleries (Leo Castelli) exhibited a succession of artistic experiments that changed modern art. Name these movements.
Abstract Expressionism, color-field painting, hard-edge abstraction, Pop Art Minimalism
Influence of Jackson Pollock's art were surrealists (such as (blank)'s work), abstraction (such as (blank)'s) and his acquaintance in New York with the Russian émigré artist Arshile Gorky.
Jackson Pollock created a new process where the he moved around its edges, letting dripping swirls of color fall from his brush. A visual paradox, reflecting contrary notions such as control and accident, identity and anonymity, drawing and painting, comes together in an image of continual motion contained within a single plane making paint, action, and canvas come together. What is it called?
Willem de Kooning painted the principal "subject" of his work, using it to describe a figure perpetually in the state of becoming or dissolving into paint, fragmented the figure into areas of pigment, applied with gestural power that he been called what?
Willem de Kooning Woman I has an archetypal female is portrayed, following an interpretation of women in late 1890s.
Name two artists that may have provided this influence? Klimt, Much.
Mark Rothko's large scale imagery placed him among the Abstract Expressionists, but his choice of simple geometry links him to classical abstraction of (blank).
Morris Louis began to experiment with water soluble and gives a flatter finish than oil paint called what?
Louis's had the paint soaks directly into the canvas called (blank), which is the modern day analogue to medieval and (blank) frescoes, where paint was bonded with the plaster of the wall.
stain painting Renaissance
The (blank) painters were inspirational to American sculptors (David Smith and Alexander Calder).
Impacting David Smith's art was his travels to Europe in the 1930s, encountering (blank), (blank), and (blank), some welded metal sculptures by Picasso.
Cubism Surrealism Constructivism
Alexander Calder was strongly influenced by (blank),(blank), and (blank), (blank).
Mondrian Miro Constructivists Surrealists
The elegant shapes of Alexander Calder's mobiles, with clearly defined edges and often in bright, clear colors, are reminiscent of (blank) and (blank) and of the Abstract expressionists.
Alexander Calder also created large non-moving sculptures that he called (blank) which consisted of vigorous planar shapes intersecting and springing up from several points on the ground.
Robert Rauschenberg was first exposed to (blank) ideas by the composer John cage, whom he went at Black Mountain College in North Carolina in 1952
Combing the painterly abstract style of the Abstract Expressionists with the found objects of Dada, Robert Rauschenberg created collages, as well 3-D "(blank)".
Robert Rauschenberg Retroactive I has the spontaneity of an Abstract Expressionist work and the evocation quality of (blank).
Jasper Johns's interest in challenging established notions of reality and illusion made him one of the pioneers of (blank), (images from popular culture are transformed into object of art.)
Witty and nightmarish, the development of "soft sculpture" and Claes Oldenburg's interest in taking common objects of their normal context is similar to that (blank).
One group of artist, such as Ellsworth Kelly and Frank Stella, developed color-field painting into a refinement known as (blank).
Ellsworth Kelly born 1923, was trained in the U.S. and France continued to explore the nature of color relationships begun by (blank), Josef Albers (Bauhaus painter) and color-field painters ((blank).
Matisse Mark Rothko
(blank), such as Frank Stella's works, was derived from the work of Malevich and Constructivists.
Paul Rudolph. Art and Architecture Building, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut was built when?
Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty was intended to invoke the universal symbolism of the spiral calling up associations with ancient pictograms, natural growth, and regeneration. What universal symbolism in the past would this be based upon?
Tatlin revolutionary tower
Christo "Surrounded Islands" Pink Fabric, Biscayne Bay, Greater Miami, Florida, was made when?
Philip Pearlstein Two Models In Bamboo Chairs With Mirror is a fragmented antique sculpture, as in (blank) art, and references to a disturbing sexuality.