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the transition from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural lifestyles (permanent residences)
period during the Neolithic era in which copper was combined with tin to make bronze for tools, weapons, etc.
what most early civilizations were comprised of; urban center with agricultural land around under its control
first known set of laws written by King Hammurabi of Babylon; a big step toward our modern legal codes
Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon as a showplace of architecture and culture after defeating it
empire that came after Babylon; stretched acros Africa, the Mediterranean, Turkey, Greece, and Afghanistan
Great Royal Road
the longest road built by the Persian Empire; 1600 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Aegean Sea
society near Persian empire known for building powerful naval city-states along the Mediterranean Sea; they also developed their own alphabet which led to the English alphabet
society whose faiths were deeply rooted in Judaism (first Jews); established Israel; maintained their culture despite the many invasions they experienced
ancient civilization developed along the Nile River; broken into three kingdoms (the New Kingdom being the peak of the civilization)
king who united the entire Nile River valley; built his capital at Memphis; managed floodwaters and built frainage and irrigation systems
writing system developed by the Egyptians; a series of pictures depicting letters and words
path through the Hindu Kush Mountains that provided a connection to the outside world for the Indus river civilization(s)
nomadic tribes of the Caucasus Mountains; easily defeated the populations of the Indus river valley
dynasty established by Wu Wang (who defeated the Shang); ruled China longer than any other dynasty
Mandate of Heaven
belief during the Zhou dynasty; heaven would grant the Zhou power only as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely
farmers from the Niger and Benue River valleys who migrated to the south and east (with their language)
the 2,000 year long dispersion of farmers from the Niger and Benue River valleys to south and east Africa
tiered Mayan temple, similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurats, that is still standing today in Mexico
empire begun by Chandragupta Maurya; spanning from the Indus River valley, through the Ganges, and the Deccan plateau
emperor who unified smaller Aryan kingdoms into a larger civilization; Mauryan dynasty
Ashoka the Great
grandson on Chandragupta Maurya; took Mauryan dynasty to its heights; converted to Buddhism and preached nonviolence
Rock and Pillar Edicts
laws written by Ashoka reminding Mauryans to live generous and righteous lives
empire referred to as "golden age" in India; developed numerals 1-9 and the concepts of 0 and pi
dynasty in which the Great Wall of China came about; very short empire (little longer than a decade)
the first Qin emperor who standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, writing systems; brutal ruler
dynasty following the Qin dynasty; the civil service system based on Confucianism was created during this period
large nomadic group from northern Asia and invaded territories extending from China to eastern Europe
Draco and Solon
aristocrats who worked to create a democracy in Athens to ensure equal, fair, and open participation
wars against the Persian empire that united the Greek city-states against their mutual enemy; war ended in a stalemate as Greece held them off in the Battles of Marathon and Salamis
Golden Age of Pericles
period after the Persian wars where Greece was able to enter an age of prosperity and peace
Athenian orator; established democracy for all adult males; rebuilt Athens after the Persian Wars; made Athens a cultural powerhouse
created by Pericles; alliance between city-states against their common enemies; led by Athens
war between Sparta and Athens; resulted after years of increasing tensions between the two powerhouses; Athens was never the same again
society under the rule of Philip of Macedon who conquered Greece; preserved Greek culture
Alexander the Great
created the largest empire of all time; son of Philip of Macedon; conquered Persian empire and attempted to conquer India
Carthaginian general of the second Punic War; destroyed many towns/villages in Rome; known for riding elephants in battle
had power over southern Gaul and France; became Roman "emperor for life"; assassinated by the senators who were angry at his sudden power
Edict of Milan
order issued by emperor Constantine that made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire
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