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foraging societies

hunter-gatherer clans

pastoral societies

societies known for domesticating animals

Neolithic Revolution

the transition from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural lifestyles (permanent residences)

Bronze Age

period during the Neolithic era in which copper was combined with tin to make bronze for tools, weapons, etc.


what most early civilizations were comprised of; urban center with agricultural land around under its control

Sumerian civilization

the first major Mesopotamian civilization; rose in southern Mesopotamia


form of writing created by the Sumerians for laws, treaties, social/religious customs


worshipping more than one god


temples built by the Sumerians to honor their gods


city north of Sumer that came to power and did away with Sumer


empire that came to power after the Akkadians in Mesopotamia

Hammurabi's Code

first known set of laws written by King Hammurabi of Babylon; a big step toward our modern legal codes


along with the Kassites, overpowered Babylon; known for their use of iron weapons


group who won Babylon back from the Hittites


the Assyrian capital


Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon as a showplace of architecture and culture after defeating it

Persian Empire

empire that came after Babylon; stretched acros Africa, the Mediterranean, Turkey, Greece, and Afghanistan

Great Royal Road

the longest road built by the Persian Empire; 1600 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Aegean Sea


society near the Persian empire; introduced the concept of coined money


society near Persian empire known for building powerful naval city-states along the Mediterranean Sea; they also developed their own alphabet which led to the English alphabet


society whose faiths were deeply rooted in Judaism (first Jews); established Israel; maintained their culture despite the many invasions they experienced

Egyptian civilization

ancient civilization developed along the Nile River; broken into three kingdoms (the New Kingdom being the peak of the civilization)

King Menes

king who united the entire Nile River valley; built his capital at Memphis; managed floodwaters and built frainage and irrigation systems


Egyptian rulers


writing system developed by the Egyptians; a series of pictures depicting letters and words

Queen Hatshepsut

the first female ruler known in history

Indus Valley civilization

civilization brought up along the banks of the Indus river

Khyber Pass

path through the Hindu Kush Mountains that provided a connection to the outside world for the Indus river civilization(s)


along with Mohenjo-Daro, one of the two largest cities of the Indus river civilization


along with Harappa, one of the two largest cities of the Indus river civilization


nomadic tribes of the Caucasus Mountains; easily defeated the populations of the Indus river valley

Zhou Dynasty

dynasty established by Wu Wang (who defeated the Shang); ruled China longer than any other dynasty

Mandate of Heaven

belief during the Zhou dynasty; heaven would grant the Zhou power only as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely


urban society in Mexico (1400-1200 BCE)


urban society in the Andes (1400-1200)


farmers from the Niger and Benue River valleys who migrated to the south and east (with their language)

Bantu migrations

the 2,000 year long dispersion of farmers from the Niger and Benue River valleys to south and east Africa


the first city of sub-Saharan Africa


the most important Mayan political center; populated by more than 100,000 people

Chichen Itza

tiered Mayan temple, similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurats, that is still standing today in Mexico

Mauryan Empire

empire begun by Chandragupta Maurya; spanning from the Indus River valley, through the Ganges, and the Deccan plateau

Chandragupta Maurya

emperor who unified smaller Aryan kingdoms into a larger civilization; Mauryan dynasty

Ashoka the Great

grandson on Chandragupta Maurya; took Mauryan dynasty to its heights; converted to Buddhism and preached nonviolence

Rock and Pillar Edicts

laws written by Ashoka reminding Mauryans to live generous and righteous lives

Chandra Gupta

repaired the Mauryan dynasty after Ashoka died; ruled the Gupta dynasty

Gupta Dynasty

empire referred to as "golden age" in India; developed numerals 1-9 and the concepts of 0 and pi

arabic numerals

the decimal system created by the Guptans and diffused to the Arabs

Qin Dynasty

dynasty in which the Great Wall of China came about; very short empire (little longer than a decade)

Great Wall of China

wall built by the Qin dynasty as a means of protection


the first Qin emperor who standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, writing systems; brutal ruler

Han dynasty

dynasty following the Qin dynasty; the civil service system based on Confucianism was created during this period


large nomadic group from northern Asia and invaded territories extending from China to eastern Europe

Wu Ti

known as the "warrior emperor"; greatly enlarged the Han dynasty to central Asia

ancient Greece

civilization located on a peninsula between the Aegean and the Mediterranean


a Greek city-state


one of the two main city states; the political, commercial, and cultural center of Greece


one of the two main city-states; militaristic society, austere, disciplined

Draco and Solon

aristocrats who worked to create a democracy in Athens to ensure equal, fair, and open participation

Persian Wars

wars against the Persian empire that united the Greek city-states against their mutual enemy; war ended in a stalemate as Greece held them off in the Battles of Marathon and Salamis

Golden Age of Pericles

period after the Persian wars where Greece was able to enter an age of prosperity and peace


Athenian orator; established democracy for all adult males; rebuilt Athens after the Persian Wars; made Athens a cultural powerhouse

Delian League

created by Pericles; alliance between city-states against their common enemies; led by Athens


Greek author of the Iliad and the Odyssey

Peloponnesian War

war between Sparta and Athens; resulted after years of increasing tensions between the two powerhouses; Athens was never the same again


society under the rule of Philip of Macedon who conquered Greece; preserved Greek culture

Alexander the Great

created the largest empire of all time; son of Philip of Macedon; conquered Persian empire and attempted to conquer India


one of the three regions of Alexander's empire; contained Greece and Macedon


one of the three regions of Alexander's empire; contained Egypt


one of the three regions of Alexander's empire; contained Bactria and Anatolia


the culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece


land-owning noblemen of Rome


common people of Rome

Twelve Tables of Rome

laws of Rome; concept of innocent until proven guilty originated here

pater familias

eldest male in the Roman family


city-state in North Africa; became the first enemy of Rome; very amibitious

Punic Wars

three wars between Rome and Carthage; Rome defeated Carthage


Carthaginian general of the second Punic War; destroyed many towns/villages in Rome; known for riding elephants in battle

first triumvirate

Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar; took control of the Senate


had power over southern Gaul and France; became Roman "emperor for life"; assassinated by the senators who were angry at his sudden power

second triumvirate

Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus; came to power after Caesar died

Octavius (Augustus)

became the first Roman emperor after the second triumvirate failed

Pax Romana

200 year period of peace and prosperity in Rome

Edict of Milan

order issued by emperor Constantine that made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire


emperor who divided the Roman empire into two regions led by two co-emperors; this was to easily manage the steadily growing empire

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