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84 terms

AP World History Exam Review

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foraging societies
hunter-gatherer clans
pastoral societies
societies known for domesticating animals
Neolithic Revolution
the transition from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural lifestyles (permanent residences)
Bronze Age
period during the Neolithic era in which copper was combined with tin to make bronze for tools, weapons, etc.
city-states
what most early civilizations were comprised of; urban center with agricultural land around under its control
Sumerian civilization
the first major Mesopotamian civilization; rose in southern Mesopotamia
cuneiform
form of writing created by the Sumerians for laws, treaties, social/religious customs
polytheistic
worshipping more than one god
ziggurats
temples built by the Sumerians to honor their gods
Akkad
city north of Sumer that came to power and did away with Sumer
Babylon
empire that came to power after the Akkadians in Mesopotamia
Hammurabi's Code
first known set of laws written by King Hammurabi of Babylon; a big step toward our modern legal codes
Hittites
along with the Kassites, overpowered Babylon; known for their use of iron weapons
Assyrians
group who won Babylon back from the Hittites
Nineveh
the Assyrian capital
Nebuchadnezzar
Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon as a showplace of architecture and culture after defeating it
Persian Empire
empire that came after Babylon; stretched acros Africa, the Mediterranean, Turkey, Greece, and Afghanistan
Great Royal Road
the longest road built by the Persian Empire; 1600 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Aegean Sea
Lydians
society near the Persian empire; introduced the concept of coined money
Phoenicians
society near Persian empire known for building powerful naval city-states along the Mediterranean Sea; they also developed their own alphabet which led to the English alphabet
Hebrews
society whose faiths were deeply rooted in Judaism (first Jews); established Israel; maintained their culture despite the many invasions they experienced
Egyptian civilization
ancient civilization developed along the Nile River; broken into three kingdoms (the New Kingdom being the peak of the civilization)
King Menes
king who united the entire Nile River valley; built his capital at Memphis; managed floodwaters and built frainage and irrigation systems
pharoahs
Egyptian rulers
hieroglyphics
writing system developed by the Egyptians; a series of pictures depicting letters and words
Queen Hatshepsut
the first female ruler known in history
Indus Valley civilization
civilization brought up along the banks of the Indus river
Khyber Pass
path through the Hindu Kush Mountains that provided a connection to the outside world for the Indus river civilization(s)
Harappa
along with Mohenjo-Daro, one of the two largest cities of the Indus river civilization
Mohenjo-Daro
along with Harappa, one of the two largest cities of the Indus river civilization
Aryans
nomadic tribes of the Caucasus Mountains; easily defeated the populations of the Indus river valley
Zhou Dynasty
dynasty established by Wu Wang (who defeated the Shang); ruled China longer than any other dynasty
Mandate of Heaven
belief during the Zhou dynasty; heaven would grant the Zhou power only as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely
Olmec
urban society in Mexico (1400-1200 BCE)
Chavin
urban society in the Andes (1400-1200)
Bantu
farmers from the Niger and Benue River valleys who migrated to the south and east (with their language)
Bantu migrations
the 2,000 year long dispersion of farmers from the Niger and Benue River valleys to south and east Africa
Jenne-Jeno
the first city of sub-Saharan Africa
Tikal
the most important Mayan political center; populated by more than 100,000 people
Chichen Itza
tiered Mayan temple, similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurats, that is still standing today in Mexico
Mauryan Empire
empire begun by Chandragupta Maurya; spanning from the Indus River valley, through the Ganges, and the Deccan plateau
Chandragupta Maurya
emperor who unified smaller Aryan kingdoms into a larger civilization; Mauryan dynasty
Ashoka the Great
grandson on Chandragupta Maurya; took Mauryan dynasty to its heights; converted to Buddhism and preached nonviolence
Rock and Pillar Edicts
laws written by Ashoka reminding Mauryans to live generous and righteous lives
Chandra Gupta
repaired the Mauryan dynasty after Ashoka died; ruled the Gupta dynasty
Gupta Dynasty
empire referred to as "golden age" in India; developed numerals 1-9 and the concepts of 0 and pi
arabic numerals
the decimal system created by the Guptans and diffused to the Arabs
Qin Dynasty
dynasty in which the Great Wall of China came about; very short empire (little longer than a decade)
Great Wall of China
wall built by the Qin dynasty as a means of protection
Shihuangdi
the first Qin emperor who standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, writing systems; brutal ruler
Han dynasty
dynasty following the Qin dynasty; the civil service system based on Confucianism was created during this period
Huns
large nomadic group from northern Asia and invaded territories extending from China to eastern Europe
Wu Ti
known as the "warrior emperor"; greatly enlarged the Han dynasty to central Asia
ancient Greece
civilization located on a peninsula between the Aegean and the Mediterranean
polis
a Greek city-state
Athens
one of the two main city states; the political, commercial, and cultural center of Greece
Sparta
one of the two main city-states; militaristic society, austere, disciplined
Draco and Solon
aristocrats who worked to create a democracy in Athens to ensure equal, fair, and open participation
Persian Wars
wars against the Persian empire that united the Greek city-states against their mutual enemy; war ended in a stalemate as Greece held them off in the Battles of Marathon and Salamis
Golden Age of Pericles
period after the Persian wars where Greece was able to enter an age of prosperity and peace
Pericles
Athenian orator; established democracy for all adult males; rebuilt Athens after the Persian Wars; made Athens a cultural powerhouse
Delian League
created by Pericles; alliance between city-states against their common enemies; led by Athens
Homer
Greek author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
Peloponnesian War
war between Sparta and Athens; resulted after years of increasing tensions between the two powerhouses; Athens was never the same again
Macedonians
society under the rule of Philip of Macedon who conquered Greece; preserved Greek culture
Alexander the Great
created the largest empire of all time; son of Philip of Macedon; conquered Persian empire and attempted to conquer India
Antigonid
one of the three regions of Alexander's empire; contained Greece and Macedon
Ptolemaic
one of the three regions of Alexander's empire; contained Egypt
Seleucid
one of the three regions of Alexander's empire; contained Bactria and Anatolia
Hellenism
the culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece
patricians
land-owning noblemen of Rome
plebeians
common people of Rome
Twelve Tables of Rome
laws of Rome; concept of innocent until proven guilty originated here
pater familias
eldest male in the Roman family
Carthage
city-state in North Africa; became the first enemy of Rome; very amibitious
Punic Wars
three wars between Rome and Carthage; Rome defeated Carthage
Hannibal
Carthaginian general of the second Punic War; destroyed many towns/villages in Rome; known for riding elephants in battle
first triumvirate
Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar; took control of the Senate
Caesar
had power over southern Gaul and France; became Roman "emperor for life"; assassinated by the senators who were angry at his sudden power
second triumvirate
Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus; came to power after Caesar died
Octavius (Augustus)
became the first Roman emperor after the second triumvirate failed
Pax Romana
200 year period of peace and prosperity in Rome
Edict of Milan
order issued by emperor Constantine that made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire
Diocletian
emperor who divided the Roman empire into two regions led by two co-emperors; this was to easily manage the steadily growing empire