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Pre-Med Quiz 3A
Terms in this set (61)
The fluid filled area inside the cell
-consists of about 65% water
-contained by plasma membrane
-generally known as protoplasm
Area outside the cells
-similar to a bath that surrounds the cells
-syrup like water, dissolved gases, salts, food particles, & cellular products.
2 Types of ECF
Located in blood vessels & chambers of the heart. Function is to transport substances in blood.
Transports substances between cells. Located between the cells of the body.
Composed of water, proteins, carbs, fats, nucleic acids, & electrolytes. All the basic building blocks that when organized in various ways carry out characteristics of living things.
3 Principle Parts of Protoplasm
Barrier that separates the internal components of a cell from extracellular material. This is a gatekeeper that regulates passage of substances into & out of the cell, therefore maintaining homeostasis.
Parts of the Plasma Membrane
-most of the cell membrane is phospholipids.
-small amount of cholesterol (steroid)
-small amount of glycolipids (lipids w/ sugar attached)
*together, they form a bilayer that is one millionth of an inch thick.
The Plasma Membrane is Semipermeable
Repels water, allows lipid soluble substances such as O₂, CO₂, & hormones to pass through & prevents lipid insoluble substances such as amino acids & sugar.
-Makes up about 75% of plasma membrane.
-Is a glycerol head w/ 2 fatty acid chains attached.
-Amphipathic (one polar and one non-polar end.) →when combined with other ______, they arrange with polar head out & non-polar tail in, forming the lipid bilayer.
-Makes up about 20% of plasma membrane.
-Molecules are located among the phospholipids in animal cells.
-Stiff steroid rings strengthen the membrane & decrease flexibility
2 Types of Membrane Proteins
-Type of membrane protein
-Extend across the phospholipid bilayer among the fatty acid tails. Most (maybe all?) _____ are glycoproteins. The sugar portion of the glycoprotein faces the ECF & are used as receptors.
Proteins with attached sugar groups
-Type of membrane protein
-Don't extend across the phospholipid bilayer
-Instead, they're loosely attached to the inner & outer surfaces of the membrane & are easily separated from it.
Plasma Membrane Modifications
-Tiny, slender projections on the free surface of the plasma membrane
-Increase the surface area of the membrane
-Increase the amount of material that can pass across membrane
*found in small intestine & kidneys
-Longer projections on free surface & contain microtubules for strength
-Move in coordinated manner to move body fluids
*found in lining of respiratory tract
-Single, long process that contains microtubules that whip about.
-Provide propulsion for cell movement
*only ex. in human body is sperm
2 Categories of Plasma Membrane Function
-Powered by kinetic energy, which is a force that causes molecules to move randomly
-No energy used by cell
-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration
-Demand input of energy from cell
-Energy supplied by ATP
-All substances have kinetic energy, molecules & ions are continually moving about, colliding with one another, & moving in different directions. _____ is the random mixing of molecules & ions.
Difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another.
-No work must be done to move substances across the ____ ____.
-Transport proteins speed movement of molecules across plasma membrane.
-Integral proteins provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to pass the membrane
-Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high conc. to lower conc. of water until equilibrium is reached.
Water Concentration is Determined by the Amount of Solutes Present
-Higher solute conc., lower water conc.
-Lower solute conc., higher water conc.
Force exerted by the movement of water molecules.
*the greater the difference in water conc. between 2 compartments, the greater the _____ ______.
Conc. of water molecules is the same on both sides of the plasma membrane. (in a state of equilibrium)
If the ECF contains a greater conc. of solutes than ICF, more water will move out of the cell → causes cell to dehydrate and shrink (crenation).
If the ECF contains a lesser conc. of solutes than ICF, more water moves into cell → causes cell to swell or possible burst (hypertrophy).
Movement of molecules across a semipermeable membrane from a region of high pressure to one of low pressure.
-Force that drives molecules & is generated by difference in the number of collisions that occur among molecules.
-Such movement is always from high to low pressure.
-Requires the use of ATP or energy supplied by cell.
-Movement of ions or molecules across semipermeable membrane from region of low conc. grad. to a higher one by integral proteins that use energy from splitting ATP
-Move against conc. grad.
The Process of Active Transport
1) Integral protein binds to a molecule, causing the protein to change shape to form a tunnel for the molecule to pass.
2) As protein changes shape, the molecule is released from the receptor site & begins to travel thru tunnel.
3) Molecule is forced against conc. grad. thru channel into cytoplasm.
4) Channel closes when molecule is in the cytoplasm
Transport of large volumes of materials & large particles across plasma membrane.
-Bulk transport of substances into cell
- Segment of plasma membrane surrounds the substance to be taken in, encloses it, & brings it into cell
2 Types of Endocytosis
-"Cell eating"; movement of solid particles thru plasma membrane
*Ex: white blood cells consume bacteria, viruses, dead red blood cells.
-"Cell drinking"; movement of ECF droplets into cell by enfolding of plasma membrane.
*Ex: solutes dissolved in ECF that are needed by the cell
-Bulk transport of substances out of cell
-Membrane enclosed structures (secretory vesicles) form in the cell, fuse with plasma membrane, then release contents into ECF.
-Includes cytosol, all organelles, & inclusions that are suspended
-75-90% water + proteins, carbs, lipids, inorganic substances like solids.
ICF in which organelles & inclusions are suspended & solutes are dissolved.
-Specialized structures that have characteristic appearances & specific roles in growth, maintenance, repair, & control.
-Create a division of labor for the cell
-Site of protein synthesis
-Free _____ found floating in cytoplasm are involved with protein synthesis for use inside the cell.
-_____ attached to E.R. are involved with protein synthesis destined for insertion into the plasma membrane or export from the cell.
-Completes protein after ribosomes build them
-Transports various molecules from one part of the cell to another.
-Rough _______ stores newly synthesized molecules & forms glycoproteins.
-Rough _______ & golgi complex synthesize & package materials to be secreted by the cell.
-Smooth ______ is the site of synthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, & steroids of detoxification of various chemicals.
-Located near nucleus
-Processes, sorts, & packages proteins & lipids for delivery to the plasma membrane
-Forms lysosomes & secretory vesicles.
-Bounded by a single lipid bilayer membrane, contains large amounts of enzymes.
-Break down nutrients, recycle the cell after death, & release enzymes into the extracellular environment.
-Round bodies found throughout the cytoplasm
-Contain enzymes that break down fatty acids & detoxify various molecules.
-Used in the liver to break down alcohol.
-Contain enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions of cellular respiration that generates ATP.
-"Powerhouse" of cell because of their role in ATP production
-Outer membrane is semipermeable membrane, inner membrane folds called cristae, which provide surface area for ATP production to take place.
-Important to cell function & structure.
-A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
3 Main types of Cytoskeleton
-Form a vast network throughout the cytoplasm
-Give support to cilia & flagellum, form centrioles which aid in cell division
-Threadlike strands arranged in bundles
-Play important role in cellular movement, especially muscle cells.
-Provide structural reinforcement inside cells, hold organelles in place.
-Largest structure in the cell, round, usually located in the center
-Control center, regulate cell activity
-Surrounded by nuclear membrane
-Separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm, semipermeable, 2 layers of lipid bilayer with pores.
-Protoplasm in the nucleus
-Similar to cytoplasm except it contains nucleoli & chromatin
-Small, round structures present during interphase
-Composed of protein & RNA
-Site of ribosome synthesis
-Present during interphase
-Is loosely organized DNA
-During cell division, organizes into chromosomes
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