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More study notes for photography

What does theterm stop in photography refer

change in illumination

Widest possible aperture on your lens is always a standard full stop


Using a larger aperture iwll produce a greater depth of field


Most lenses are sharpest at an aperture closed down _____.


Focusing on _____ assures maximum depth of field

hyperfocal distance

Which of the following filters is recommended for outdoor portraits because it will darken a blue sky without making skin tones appear too light ?

yellow green

_____ the development time can _____.

Increasing; partially rescue

What is a fast acting fixer?

Ammonium thiosulfate

Rapid Fixer takes how long?

2-4 minutes

Pushing film is useful when working in _______ light


When printing what 2 colors are use?

yellow and magenta

Color prints should be adjusted for what first?


After digitizing an existing image, the image becomes a

String of numbers

The _____ palette tracks the changes you make to an image.


shows the composite view of all three channels, though each can be adjusted individually.

levels histogram

These inks produce the most vibrant colors?

Dye based

Black-and-white negatives present unique storage problems because silver is susceptible to _____.

Sulfur compounds

Which of the following is the method typically used to remove a small dark blemish on a print by scraping it off with a blade? Etching


___________ is done to correct blemishes on the print that are white.


A _____ should be used to protect the print and mount surfaces from damage.

Cover Sheet

_______________is an adhesive used to attach the print to the mat board.

Dry mount tissue

Matting serves to separate the print from the _____.


It is recommended that you not predry a digital print.


A(n) _____ utilizes light-sensitive iron salts to create an image.


You can darken the blue in a cyanotype by treating it with a solution of _____ after it dries.

Hydrogen peroxide

Extension tubes and Bellows generally produce images of _____quality than with close-up lenses.


18. Skin tones are rendered within about a __ stop spread.


light intensity and exposure time are reciprocal; an increase in one will be balanced by an equal decrease in the other.

19. Photographic reciprocity

23. In film the denser the build up of silver the ________ an area will be.


25. ________ film have wide exposure latitude, which means you can expose individual frames at different film speeds


26. A chromogenic emulsion is one that contains ____ as well as ____

dye couplers & silver halides

33. The usable exposure range of a specific film is sometimes called its _____


34. The useable exposure range of film or a digital sensor (or a range of subject brightness) is called ____

dynamic range.

41. ISO 200 is ___ as fast as ISO 100


42. ISO 100 is ___ stop slower than ISO 200.

1 stop

43. A correct exposure at ISO 200 needs ___ as much light as one at ISO 100, and ___ as much light as ISO 400.

half / twice

45. Noise is the presence of pixels whose ____& ___ is unrelated to the subject

color and brightness

A ___ does not change its sensitivity


What 2 things create noise:

1. Higher ISO 2. Longer exposures

Filters ___ the color that is being used to create a darker tone in B&W>


A __ filter absorbs its complementary color, the color or colors opposite it on a color wheel.


__ converts the latent image in exposed film to a visible image.


60. Fixer is also called_________.


Drops will turn milky when fixer is exhausted.

fixer check

In developing the longer the development time, the ___ and more ___ the negative becomes.

darker & contrasty

4 factors that also influence the amount of development which in turn controls contrast and desnity:

Higher temp
Increase time
more concentration of developing agent
Greater agitation

Changing the development time has little effect on ___ areas, but it has a strong effect on ____ areas.

shadow / highlight

In a ___ enlarger a sheet of opal glass is placed beneath the light source to scatter the light evenly over the negative.


In a ___ enlarger lenses gather the rays from the light source and send them straight through the negative.


The_____ of the enlarger lens must be matched to the size of the negative.

focal length

These papers require much less washing time than fiber base papers.

Resin coated RC

This refers to the overall darkness or lightness of the print


___ is the difference in brightness between light and dark areas within the print


(sometimes called lightness or luminance) is a measure of the brightness or darkness of the color.


_____ (or Chroma) is a description of a color's purity.


Colors can add the impression of ________ in a picture

heat or weight

___ colors especially if they are dark can make an object seem heavy and dense.


_____ colors on the other hand give an object a light, less substantial appearance.

Pale cool

Using daylight film in Tungsten light what type of filter do you use?


Using Tungsten film in Daylight what type of filter do you use?


Daylight film in Fluorescent use either?

FL or CC30M

What is a skylight filter?

1a absorbs UV

Computers record information in ___ form using combinations of digits 1 & 0.


Histogram black represents_________


109. Histogram middle gray represents___________


Histogram pure white represents a______________


The greatest tonal range from black to white, a papers contrast belongs to

Glossy, semi gloss, matte, uncoated papers

What types of inks last the longest?


Refers to correcting flaws caused by the process like unavoidable dust spots and scratches on negatives


How do your remove spots on a print?

dyes Dark then light

Etching can remove what in a print?

Thin black marks

Bleaching areas to lighten the print is known as ?

Local reduction

What is the best tape to use for hinge mounting a print?

Archival gummed or Tyvek Tape

Mounting bonds a print smoothly to a backing board.


This mounting trims the edges of the mounting board along the edges of a dry mounted print's image.


RC Photographic paper can melt at temperatures higher than _______________?

210 F

What do you use if your mounting a digital print?

Use a cold mount tissue or hinge the print under an overmat.

A fiber based print should bond in __________?

30-40 sec

______________ provides a raised border around a print.


_____________ & _____________ lets you remove the print from its backing board, in case the board needs replacing.

Cornering & hinging

What is the best way to hold a print in place under a window?


What is the best type of mat made up of?

Cotton rag

Standard non-glare glass shouldn't be used for __________ because it can produce optical distortion.


tube attached to the front of a lamp housing to narrow its beam.


attached to the front of a lamp housing and uses an array of tiny tubes to narrow it beam


small panel usually mounted on a stand and positioned so it shades some part of the subject or shields the camera lens from light.


2:1 ratio

lit side twice as light = 1 stop

3:1 ratio

lit side 3 times lighter = 1.5 stop

4:1 ratio

4 times lighter = 2 stops

8:1 ratio

8 times lighter = 3 stops

A camera with ___ shutter can use any shutter speed when it is set to X sync.


This flash metering is always an automatic flash and is designed to be used with a particular camera.


This flash metering has a sensor inside the camera that reads the amount of light that actually reaches the digital sensor or film.

Through the lens metering

What are the ways of describing a flash units power?

Guide number & Watt Seconds

As light travels farther from a light source, its rays spread out, cover a wider area, and lose brightness is known as ?

Inverse square law

___ is controlled by the photographer adjusting the size of the lens aperture.


The greater the distance from the flash to subject, the ___ the illumination that reaches the subject and the ____ the lens aperture needs to be

weaker , larger

Light from a flash is relatively ______


Tungsten bulbs are ____


Fluorescent bulbs _________


What type of lighting widens the face?


________ lighting places the main light on the side of the face away from the camera.


What type of lighting is used for oval and average faces?


_____ lighting places the main light on the side of the face toward the camera.


What type of lighting is used for narrow or thin faces?


This lighting is referred to as glamor lighting?


This lighting emphasis texture?


Glassware is usually lit how?

below or behind

The size of the image is referred to as??


This is a 2 part work of art to be seen as one and cannot be adequately conveyed by seeing only part of the piece?


We normally get most of our depth perception from ______ vision?

Steroscopic vision

This utilizes light sensitive iron salts to form an image?


All these alternative printing processes require a negative the same size as the final print:

Cyanotype, platinum or palladium printing

This paper has a light sensitive coating that yields an image of ________ metal instead of silver?


What printing led to the revival printing processes in the 70's?

Gum Bichromate

Gum dissolves slowly in water do not use __ water.


The effect occurs when silver based photographic materials are re-exposed to light during development & gives an image both negative and positive qualities and adds halo like Mackie Lines between adjacent highlight and shadow ares.


50 mm lens will produce life size images a ___ratio


In a view camera the edges decrease in

sharpness and brightness.

moves the subject higher on the film w/out changing its shape.

Back rise

lowers the position of the subject on the film

Back fall

lowers the image of the cube on the film; however moving the lens causes a change that doesn't occur with back movement.

Front rise

raises the image on the film and changes the lens position.

Front fall

a sideways version of rise and fall and the results are similar.

Side shift

No effect to shape just a little it controls the vertical placement of a subject

Rise & fall

No effect to shape and controls the horizontal placement of a subject


Shape is changed with this movement in view camera

Back tilt

View camera it is the "yes" movement


Control the plane of focus and depth of field


View camera it is the "no" movement.


Control horizontal perspective when shooting @ a side angle to the subject


rule says that if the camera's lens plane and film plane are not parallel, then the plane of focus will meet those 2 planes in a line.


an exaggeratedly sharp angle

Ship's prow effect

What are the 4 scales for the zone system?

Subject value
Negative density values
Print values
Zones scale

describe the amount of light reflected or emitted by various objects in a scene.

Subject value -

the amount of silver in various parts of the negative after it has been developed. Can be measured by a densitometer.

Negative density values

describe the amount of silver in various parts of a print

Print values-

What is the darkest possible zone?

Zone 0

What is the lightest possible zone?

Zone X

What is middle gray zone?

Zone V

___ can change the highlights and as a result control the overall contrast of the negative.


What is the most common way to adjust contrast?

Grade of paper or change the development time

____ development increases contrast


____development decreases contrast.


The ___ a negative is developed the greater the silver density that develops in high values. Shadow areas remain about the same


An ___ is produced by increasing development time


A ____ is produced by decreasing development time


Increase in development time will______

increase grain

Color negative place value on

Shadow areas

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