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first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid


simple sugar that is used to make ATP through cellular respiration


The three-carbon end product of glycolysis. Pyruvate is the raw material of the Krebs cycle.

Lactic Acid

Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.

Kreb's Cycle

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

Electron Transport Chain

a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP


in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP. Where Kreb's Cycle and Electron Transport Chain occur


process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen

Aerobic Respiration

cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP


Energy is formed as ATP through cellular respiration


Electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle used in Krebs cycle


(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration in the absence of oxygen. This produces lactic acid.

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