Research 1: The Research Question (EXAM 1)
Terms in this set (56)
What is the quest for answers?
Answers that are the absolute truth=
Answers that are constructions of reality=
What is commonly seen as an article?
The development of a (research) plan
What are the essential elements of a research plan?
A) Research question/purpose
C) Theoretical/Conceptual basis
H) Variables & Measures
I) Statistical analysis
What is the process in order to reach the research objective?
1) Topic of interest
2) Research question
3) Research objective
What's important about the research question?
It control the direction of all further efforts
What makes coming up w/ a research question difficult?
-an analytical & evolving process
-requires effort & diligence
-starts w/ literature search
What are the R's of coming up w/ a research question?
What is the research problem development?
notes below slide
What are the categories of questions?
---What is relationship?
---What is cause & effect? (if...then...)
The research topic=
-the area of interest
Where do you start when deciding on the research topic?
What is the research problem?
-heart of your study
-reason for undertaking this project
-the issue you want to solve
-helps delineate the Question
How can you hone in on the research problem?
-start broad then narrow in
-start narrow then refocus broader
-many question identified - is there a hierarchy to the questions?
The research question=
What's important about the literature review/background?
---relevant topics, years, researchers
---professional lit, databases
---logical based on time or frame of reference
What do you do when you review literature?
a) Summarize & critique prior studies
b) Find limitations of prior studies
c) Build a logical case in support
How do you establish a framework?
-examine the theories
-refer to the professional lit
What do you look for when referring to the professional lit when establishing a framework?
1) Preliminary review
3) Replication of previous studies
What's the difference btwn primary & secondary sources?
1= journals, oral presentation, info from the source/author/person
2= description of .... review articles, textbooks
What is a theory?
-something that explains facts in a relational way
-organized set of relationships btwn concepts & constructs to describe & explain*
What is a concept?
mental image described in words (age, pain)
What is a construct?
non-observable abstraction created for specific purpose
---defined by observable measures (satisfaction, motivation)
What's the significance of your research question?
-the "so what?"
-elaboration of what your project will do to address the problem you have identified
-why your project is important
-why your purpose is worth pursing
What is the background in research?
-supports your problem
-what info can you provide to elaborate on the problem or the need for resolution?
-"why is the problem of concern?"
-What is theoretical basis?
-opinion, fact, info
-the literature base
What is epidemiological data that you can also use in the background?
-loss in productive time
-cost of health care services
-segments of population w/ least access
What are the 3 characteristics a research question must have?
Research question characteristic: Important
-potential impact on practice/theory
-contribute to the body of knowledge
Research question characteristic: Answerable
-tools that support
Research question characteristic: Feasible
-researcher knowledge, skill, resources
What is the target population?
-the group of individuals to which the results apply
-sometimes normals, other times pts
-need to define based on clearly established problem
What is the rationale?
-supports the question
-helps develop the framework (constructs, theories)
-previous research & logical assumptions that follow
What are the variables?
-property that can differentiate members of a group or set
-represents concepts/ factors w/ more than one value
-need to look at relationships/interactions of variables
What are the 2 types of research variables?
What is an independent variable?
-predicts or causes
-condition, intervention or characteristic that predicts outcome
What is a dependent variable?
-the response or effect that is presumed to depend on the independent variable
---what changes, caused by independent variable
-defined by measurement tool or procedure
What is the importance of defining terms/variables?
-operationalize important terms
-exactly what is this variable saying?
-how is it measured?
-development of model
dictionary definition not very helpful
unique meaning in the study
What is the hypothesis?
-declarative statement predicts relationship btwn variables
-statement of expected relationship btwn variables
-proposition to be tested in a statement of relationship btwn 2 variables
-null or directional
-can be guiding questions or specific aims
What's the criteria for a useful hypothesis?
-identifies all levels of independent variable
-based on sound rationale
practice --> theory
---bottom of the triangle up
theory --> practice
---top of the triangle down
What is a research hypothesis?
-expectations of results
-null, nondirectional, or directional hypothesis
-simple vs complex
What is a research question?
-the refined question
-can be stated as hypothesis
there is no difference
---used for statistical analysis
---must include the word "significant"
there will be a difference
---results can go either way
---ex: "there will be no significant difference"
---ex: "there will be a significant greater improvement..."
1 independent & 1 dependent variable
more than 1 independent or dependent variable
What is purpose in research?
-clear statement of study
-tell what you hope to accomplish
-"the purpose of this study is..."
Summary: What's the 1st step in starting a study?
-developing the research question
-the R's- research, refine, restate, reexamine, redefine, research
Summary: How do you get to the research question?
Summary: What comes next after you have the research question?
-development of method
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