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MCAT 2015 -Chemistry and Physics Flashcards
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Gravity
Terms in this set (78)
Mass
A scalar quantity used as a measure of an object's inetria
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
states that when only conservative forces act on an object and work is done, energy is conserved and described by the equation: ΔE=ΔU+ΔK=0
Capacitance
A measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge at a given voltage; calculated by the ration of the magnitude of charge on one plate to the voltage across the two plates:
Unit - Farad (F)
Total Internal Reflection
The condition in which the incident angle of light traveling from a medium with a high n to a medium with a low n is greater than the critical angle
The first n = critical angle - this is where the light ray is coming from
The second n = 90 degrees and this is what is needed to make the critical angle happen for the light rays
This results in all of the light being reflected and none of it being refracted
Center of Mass
The point on some object or body where all of its mass is considered to be concentrated. This is known as the center of gravity in a uniform gravitational field.
Frequency
Number of cycles per second measured in units of Hz, where 1Hz= 1 cycle per second.
Conductor
A material in which electrons can move with relative ease
Index of Refreaction
Ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light through a medium, given by:
n=c/v
Convection
Form of heat transfer - heat transfer in the form of fluids, by which one fluid flows over another object and transfers heat or by means in which a cooled fluid absorbs energy by flowing over a heated object.
Conduction
Form of heat transfer - energy is transferred by molecular collisions or direct contact between objects
Work
One of the two forms of energy in which a force is applied to change the energy of a system. In mechanics, this is solved with the equation relating force times the displacement cosine theta
Force must be parallel to the displacement for work to occur. If the angle between the force and the displacement is perpendicular, then no work can be done.
Laminar Flow
Smoothest type of liquid flow through a tube wherein thin layers of liquid slide over one another. Occurs along the flow speed stays below a critical value.
Focal length
The distance between the focal point and the mirror or lens. Equal to one half the radius of curvature.
Elastic potential Energy
Energy associated with stretching or compressing a spring, calculated by the equation: U=1/2kx^2 and the unit is in joules
Work-Energy Theorem
States that the net work performed on an object is related to its change in energy. This theorem is used to relate kinetic energy to work.
Frictional Force
An antagonistic force that points parallel and opposite in direction to the direction of movement of an object. Related to a coefficient of friction and the normal force.
Static - a range in which the frictional force occurs
Kinetic - a direct value (must be overcome for the motion to proceed)
Beta Decay
A nuclear reaction in which a beta particle (e-) is emitted. This will emit an electron
Gravitational Potential Energy
The energy of an object due to its height above a given datum, calculated by the equation U=mgh and given in the SI unit of joules (J)
Doppler Effect
When source emitting sound and a detector receiving the sound move relative to each other, the perceived frequency f' is less than or greater than the actual frequency emitted f, depending on whether the sources and detector move toward or away from each other.
Source is always the denominator, and the detector is always the numerator. Perceived frequency should increase if the object is approaching the stationary detector and should decrease if it is moving away.
Spherical Mirror
Converging mirror is a concave mirror with a positive focal length, while a diverging mirror is a convex mirror with a negative focal length. Diverging mirrors always produce virtual images.
Electric Field
Electrostatic force that a source charge would exert on a positive test charge divided by the magnitude of the that test charge (Q). Electric fields are represented by E field lines, imaginary lines that show the direction in which a positive test charge is accelerated by the force.
Coulombs law
The law describing the electrostatic force that exists between two charges, q1 and q2, given by an equation. The electrostatic force is inversely related to the square of the distance between the two. The farther away, the smaller the force.
Rotational Equilibrium
The sum of the torques acting on a body is zero - no net angular acceleration. An object may be in rotational, translational equilibrium or both at the same time.
Radiation
Form of heat transfer - the energy is carried by electromagnetic waves; the only form of heat transfer that can be carried out in a vacuum.
Nonconservative force
A force that dissipates mechanical energy from a system. The amount of energy lost depends on the path taken
Reflection
When light waves strike a medium, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
Kinetic Energy
The energy of an object in motion.
Formula is Ke = 1/2mv^2
Unit is the joule
Bernoulis Equation
equation that describes the conservation of total mechanical energy in fluid flow. For a given depth, linear flow speed and pressure are inversely proportional.
When the heights are equal:
The faster the speed at one point, the lower the pressure. The slower the speed at one point the higher the pressure.
Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
Two objects that are in thermal equilibrium with a third object are also then in thermal equilibrium with each other. Objects at the same temperature are in thermal equilibrium with no net transfer of heat.
Pressure
The force per unit area. May be provided as absolute (hydrostatic) pressure, which is the pressure below the surface of a fluid that depends on gravity and the surface pressure.
Gauge Pressure
The pressure above and beyond atmospheric pressure. When pressure at the surface is atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure is determined by the multiplication of the density of the fluid, gravity and the depth
Positron Decay
Nuclear reaction in which a positron (B+ or e+) is emitted
Torque
A force creating rotation about an axis; measured as the lever arm (the distance between the fulcrum and the applied force) times the magnitude of the force times the sine of the angle between them.
The larger the distance from the fulcrum, the less force that needs to be applied to produce the torque.
Wave Speed
The speed of a wave, which is related to its frequency and wavelength by the equation v=f times wavelength
Wave Rules
1 - wave speed depends on wave type and the medium, not the frequency
2 - A single wave passing between media maintains a constant frequency
Dielectric
An insulating material placed between the two plates of a capacitor; used to increase capacitance.
If the circuit is plugged in - more charge will be stored and if the circuit is not plugged in, the voltage of the capacitor will decrease, indirectly increasing its capacitance.
Right Hand Rule
Common method used to determine the direction of a vector created as the product of two vectors. The thumb points in the direction of the first vector, the index finger points in the direction of the second vector and the middle finger points in the direction of the resultant
Newtons First Law
No force acts on an object, then the velocity on that object is constant
Resistivity
Intrinsic property of a conductor used to measure its resistance in the equation: R=p(resistivity)L(length of conductor)/A(cross-sectional Area)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
says that the entropy (disorder) of the universe is increasing. One corollary of the Second Law of thermodynamics is the concept that, in most energy transformations, a significant fraction of energy is lost to the universe as heat.
All energy either increases entropy (irreversible processes) or keeps it constant (reversible processes)
Kirchhoff's Junction Rule
States that the sum of currents directed into a node or junction point in a circuit equals the sum of the currents directed away from that point.
Current going into a junction = Current leaving a junction
Capacitor
An electric device used in circuits that is composed of two conducting plates separated by a short distance; these devices store electrical charge
Cohesion
Attractive force felt by liquid molecules toward each other. Cohesion is responsible for surface tension
Translational Equilibrium
Forces acting on object are zero, giving it no net acceleration.
Diffraction
Spreading-out effect of light when it passes through a small slit opening
Ohm's Law
the voltage drop across a resistor is proportional to the current flowing through it, given by equation V=IR
First law of Thermodynamics
States that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat transferred into the system minus the work done on the system.
Work - energy the system loses
Heat - energy the system gains
Both of these forms of energy together relate the way the energy in the system is changing since, it will try and maintain equilibrium with other objects in its surrounding.
Resistance
The natural tendency of a conductor to block current flow to a certain extent resulting in loss of energy of potential.
R=V/I
Continuity Equation
Mass flow rate of fluid must remain constant from one cross-section of a tube to another.
Archimedes Principle
The body that is fully or partially immersed in a liquid will be buoyed upwards by a force that is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body:
Fbuoyancy=density of the fluid X Volume submerged X gravity
Interference
When superimposed waves are in phase, their amplitudes add (constructive interference). When superimposed light waves are out of phase, their amplitudes subtract (destructive interference)
Sound Level
The loudness of a sound - measured in decibels
Multiply I by 10 add 10 to B (sound level - beats)
divide I by 10 - subtract 10 to B (sound level - beats)
Intensity
I = power/area
I - Is inversely proportional to the distance squared (where the distance is that how far from the source) and directly as the the square of the wave amplitude
Magnification
A dimensionless value denoted by m and given by the equation m = -i/o (the whole fraction is negative), where i is the image distance and o is the object distance.
Negative m - inverted image
Positive m - upright image
Heat Transfer
The movement of thermal energy towards a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Heat moves from an object with a higher temperature to the object with the lower temperature.
Centripetal Acceleration
The acceleration of an object traveling in a circle that points toward the center of the circle.
Uniform circular motion, it is equal in magnitude to the velocity squared divided by the radius of the circle traversed
Speed of Light
Given by the equation:
c= wavelength x frequency
Image
The apparent location of an object perceived through a lens or mirror. An image produced at a point where the light does not actually pass through or converge is called a virtual image. Where the light rays pass through or converge is a real image
Potential Difference
The difference in electric potential between two points in an electric field
Normal Force
Perpendicular component of the force caused when two surfaces push against each other, denoted by N
Kirchoff's Loop Rule
States that the sum of the voltage sources in a circuit loop is equal to the sum of the voltage drops along that loop
Power
The rate at which work is done - Power is work (energy) divided by time
The unit for power is the Watt (W)
Electromotive force
The force that is forcing the current flow created by a voltage source, such as a battery or outlet
Alpha Decay
A nuclear Reaction in which an alpha particle is emitted (helium atom)
Electric Power
The rate at which the energy of flowing charges through a resistor or other device is dissipated, given by the equation: P=IV
Conservative Force
A force that does not cause dissipation of mechanical energy from a system. Work performed is independent of the path taken.
Pascal's Principle
When a pressure is applied to one point of an enclosed fluid, that pressure is transmitted in equal magnitude to all points within that fluid and to the walls of its container.
Indicator
Signals end point of titration
Henderson Hasselbach Equation
An equation commonly used in titration based problems that relates the pH or pOH of a solution to the pKa and the ratio of dissociated species.
pH=pKa + log(A-/HA)
Endothermic
reaction that proceeds with the net absorption of heat from surroundings
Ideal Gas
A hypothetical gas containing particles with zero volume and with no attractive intermolecular forces
Cathode
Electrode at which reduction occurs during an oxidation reduction reaction. Electrons always flow towards the cathode in an electrochemical cell. Happens in a galvanic/voltaic cell or in an electrolytic cell.
Anode
Electrode at which oxidation occurs during an oxidation reduction reaction. Electrons always move away from the anode in an electrochemical cell.
Reducing agent
species that is oxidized in the process of reducing another species
Oxidizing agent
species that is reduced in the process of oxidizing another species
Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
The product of the molar concentrations of dissociated ions in a saturated solution, where each ion is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient
Conjugate Acid and Base
A systematic pairing of a protonated species (acid) with its deprotonated form (conjugate base) or a deprotonated species (base) with its protonated form (conjugate acid). Conjugates appear on opposite sides of the chemical reaction
Common Ion Effect
States that the molar solubility of one salt is reduced when another salt having a common ion is brought into the same solution.
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