258 terms

ECOLOGY EXAM AP BIO

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Terms in this set (...)

"Key concepts" -pg. 1148
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"The Scope of Ecological research" -diagram on pg. 1149
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CONCEPT CHECK 52.1 (pg, 1151, answers pg A-41)
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"Natural range expansions"-2 paragraphs on pg. 1152
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FIGURE 52.6 (pg 1152, answers pg A-41)
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"Species Transplants"-2 paragraphs on pg. 1153
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"Behavior and Habitat Selection" -2 paragraphs on pg. 1153
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FIGURE 52.8 (1153, ans. pg A-41)
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"Removal and addition experiments" -pg. 1154
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"Global climate patterns" (pg. 1155)
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"Regional. local, and Seasonal Effects on Climate" (pg. 1155)
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"Bodies of Water" (1155-1158)
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"The Great Ocean conveyor belt" (1155)
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"exploring Global Climate Patterns" (1156-1157)
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"moderating effects of a large body of water" (1158)
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"mountains" (pg 1158)
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"Seasonality" (pg 1158)
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"How mountains affect rainfall" (1158)
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"Microclimate" (1158-1159)
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"Long-term climate change" (1159-1161)
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"Aquatic biomes are diverse..." (1159-1161)
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FIGURE 52.14 (1159, ans. pg A-41)
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CONCEPT CHECK 52.2 (pg 1159, answers A-41 and A-42)
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"stratification of Aquatic Biomes" (1161)
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"Figure 52.18 - major aquatic biomes" (1162-1165)
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"the structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes..." (1166)
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"Climate and terrestrial biomes" (1166)
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CONCEPT CHECK 52.3 (1166, answers A-42)
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"general Features of Terrestrial biomes and the..." (Pg 1167)
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CONCEPT CHECK 52.4 (1167, answers A-42)
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"Exploring terrestrial biomes" (1168-1171)
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"CHAPTER 52 REVIEW-SELF QUIZ" (1172-1173, answers A-42)
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"Key concepts" (1174)
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"dynamic biological processes influence population density..." (1174)
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"Density and dispersion" (1174-1175)
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"Density: a dynamic perspective" (1175-1176)
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"Research method" (1175)
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"Population dynamics" (1175)
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"Patterns of dispersion" (1176-1177)
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FIGURE 53.4 (1176, ans. A-42)
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"demographics" (1177)
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"Life tables" (1177)
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"Survivorship curves" (1177-1178)
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"Reproductive rates" (1178-1179)
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"life history traits are products of natural selection" (1179)
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"Evolution and life history diversity" (1179-1180)
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CONCEPT CHECK 53.1 (1179 ans. A-42)
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"trade-offs and life histories" (1180)
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"The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment" (1181)
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"Per capita rate of increase" (pg 1181-1182)
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FIGURE 53.8 (1180, ans. A-42)
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CONCEPT CHECK 53.2 (1181, A-42)
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"Exponential growth" (1182-1183)
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"The logistic model describes how..." (1183)
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"The logistic growth model" (1183-1184)
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CONCEPT CHECK 53.3 (1183, A-42)
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"The logistic model and real populations" (1184-1185)
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"the logistic model and life histories" (1185-1186)
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"Many factors that regulate..." (1186)
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"population change and population density" (1186)
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CONCEPT CHECK 53.4 (1186, A-42 and A-45)
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"Density-dependent population regulation" (1187)
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"Competition for resources" (1187)
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"Territoriality" (1187)
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"Disease" (1187-1188)
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"Predation" (1188)
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"Toxic wastes" (1188)
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"Intrinsic factors" (1188)
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"Population dynamics" (1188)
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"Stability and fluctuation" (1188-1189)
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"population cycles: scientific inquiry" (1189-1190)
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FIGURE 53.19 (1189 A-42)
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FIGURE 53.20 (1189 A-42)
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"Immigration, emigration, and metapopulations" (1190)
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"The human population is no longer growing..." (1190)
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"The global human population" (1190-1191)
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CONCEPT CHECK 53.5 (1190 A-43)
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"Regional patterns of population change" (1191-1192)
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"age structure" (1192-1193)
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"Infant mortality and life expectancy" (1193)
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"Global carrying capacity" (1193)
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"Estimates of carrying capacity" (1193)
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"Limits on human population size" (1193-1195)
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CHAPTER 53 self-quiz (1196-1197 A-43)
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"Key concepts" (1198)
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"Community interactions are specified..." (1198-1199)
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"competition" (1199)
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"Competitive exclusion" (1199)
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"ecological niches" (1199-1200)
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"Character displacement" (1200)
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FIGURE 54.3 (1200 A-43)
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FIGURE 54.4 (1200 A-43)
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"Predation" (1201-1202)
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"Herbivory" (1202)
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"Symbiosis" (1202)
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"Parasitism" (1202)
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"Mutualism" (1203)
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"Commensalism" (1203)
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"Dominant and keystone..." (1204)
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"species diversity" (1204-1205)
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CONCEPT CHECK 54.1 (1204 A-43)
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"Trophic structure" (1205)
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"Food webs" (1205-1206)
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"Limits on food chain length" (1206-1207)
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"Species with a large impact" (1207)
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"Dominant species" (1207)
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FIGURE 54.14 (1207 A-43)
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"Keystone species" (1208)
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"foundation species..." (1208-1209)
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FIGURE 54.15 (1208 A-43)
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"Bottom-up and top..." (1209-1210)
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FIGURE 54.19 (1210 A-43)
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CONCEPT CHECK 54.2 (1210 A-43)
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"disturbance influences species diversity and composition" (1211)
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"Characterizing disturbance" (1211-1212)
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"Ecological succession" (1212-1214)
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"human disturbance" (1214)
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"Bio geographic factors affect community biodiversity" (1214-1215)
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"Latitudinal gradients" (1215)
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"Area effects" (1215-1216)
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"Island equilibrium model" (1216-1217)
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"Community ecology is useful for..." (1217)
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CONCEPT CHECK 54.4 (1217 A-43)
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FIGURE 54.28 (1217 A-43)
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"PATHOGENS AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE" (1218)
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"community ecology and zoonotic diseases" (1218-1219)
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CONCEPT CHECK 54.5 (1219 A-43)
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"Chapter 54 self-quiz" (1220-1221 A-44)
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"Key concepts chapter 55" (1222)
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"Observing ecosystems" (1222-1223)
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"physical laws govern energy..." (1223)
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"Conservation of energy" (1223)
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"Conservation of mass" (1223)
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"Energy, mass, and trophic levels" (1223-1224)
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"Energy and other limiting factors..." (1224-1225)
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CONCEPT CHECK 55.1 (1224 A-44)
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"Ecosystem energy budgets" (1225)
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"The global energy budget" (1225)
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"gross and net primary production" (1225-1226)
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"Primary production in aquatic ecosystems" (1226)
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"light limitation" (1226)
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"Nutrient limitation" (1226-1227)
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FIGURE 55.6 (1226 A-44)
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"primary production in terrestrial ecosystems" (1227-1228)
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"Energy levels for trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient" (1227)
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FIGURE 55.7 (1227 A-44)
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"Production efficiency" (1228-1229)
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CONCEPT CHECK 55.2 (1228 A-44)
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"Trophic efficiency and ecological pyramids" (1229-1230)
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"The green world hypothesis" (1230)
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"biological and geochemical..." (1231)
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CONCEPT CHECK 55.3 (1230 A-44)
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"Biogeochemical cycles" (1231)
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FIGURE 55.13 (1231 A-44)
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"exploring nutrient cycles" (1232-1233)
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"Decomposition and nutrient cycling rates" (1234)
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"case Study: nutrient cycling in the Hubbard brook experimental forest" (1234-1236)
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FIGURE 55.15 (1234 A-44)
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"human activities now dominate most chemical cycles on earth" (1236)
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"nutrient enrichment" (1236)
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"Agriculture and nitrogen cycling" (1236)
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CONCEPT CHECK 55.4 (1236 A-44)
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"Contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1237)
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"acid precipitation" (1237-1238)
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"Toxins in the environment" (1238-1239)
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"Greenhouse gases and global warming" (1239)
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"Rising atmospheric CO2 levels" (1239-1240)
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"How elevated CO2 levels affect forest ecology: the FACTS-I experiment" (1240)
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"The greenhouse effect and climate" (1240-1241)
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"Depletion of atmospheric ozone" (1241-1242)
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CONCEPT CHECK 55.5 (1242 A-44)
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Chapter 55 self-quiz (1244 A-44)
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Chapter 56 key concepts (1245)
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"Striking gold" (1245-1246)
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"Human activities threaten earth's biodiversity" (1246)
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"Three levels of biodiversity" (1246)
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"Genetic diversity" (1246)
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"Species diversity" (1246-1247)
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"Ecosystem diversity" (1247)
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"Biodiversity and human welfare" (1247-1248)
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FIGURE 56.4 (1247 A-44)
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"Benefits of Species and Genetic Diversity" (1248)
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"Ecosystem services" (1248)
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"Three threats to biodiversity" (1248)
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"Habitat loss" (1248-1249)
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"Introduced species" (1249-1250)
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"Overexploitation" (1250)
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"Population conservation focuses on population size, genetic diversity, and critical habitat" (1250)
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"Small-population approach" (1251)
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"The extinction vortex" (1251)
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CONCEPT CHECK 56.1 (1250 A-44 and A-45)
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"Case study: the greTer prairie chicken and the extinction vortex" (1251)
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"Minimum viable population size" (1251)
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"Effective population size" (1252)
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FIGURE 56.11 (1252 A-44)
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"Case Study: Analysis of Grizzly Bear Populations" (1253)
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"Declining-Population Approach" (1253)
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"Steps for analysis and intervention" (1253-1254)"
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"Case Study: Decline of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker" (1254-1255)
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"Weighing conflicting Demands" (1255)
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"Landscape and regional conservation aim to sustain entire biotas" (1255)
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FIGURE 56.13 (1254 A-44)
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CONCEPT CHECK 56.2 (1255 A-45)
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"Landscape structure and biodiversity" (1255-1256)
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"Fragmentation and edges" (1256-1257)
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"Corridors that connect habitat fragments" (1257)
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"Establishing protected Areas" (1257)
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"Finding Biodiversity Hot Spots" (1257-1258)
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"Philosophy of Nature Reserves" (1258)
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"Zoned Reserves" (1258-1260)
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"Restoration ecology attempts to restore degraded ecosystems to a more natural state" (1260)
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"Bioremediation" (1260-1261)
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"Biological Augmentation" (1261)
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"Exploring Restoration" (1261)
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"Exploring restoration ecology worldwide" (1262-1263)
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CONCEPT CHECK 56.3 (1260 A-45)
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"Sustainable development seeks to improve the human condition while conserving biodiversity" (1264)
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"Sustainable biosphere initiative" (1264)
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"Case Study: sustainable development in Costa Rica" (1264-1265)
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CONCEPT CHECK 56.4 (1264 A-45)
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"The future of the biosphere" (1265)
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CONCEPT CHECK 56.5 (1265 A-45)
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"Self-Quiz chapter 56" (1256 A-45)
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population
A localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring
Community
All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction
exponential growth ' j curve' on a graph unlimited resources

(In book, the word is "exponential population growth" and the definition is:
Growth of a population in an ideal, unlimited environment, represented by a J-shaped curve when population size is plotted over time.)
~carrying capacity- resources limit growth and it levels off it is the symbol K

(In book the word is "carrying capacity" and the definition is:
The maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources, symbolized as K)
logistic growth - s curve, as the population 'n' approaches K, the growth rate decreases dramatically

(In book, the word is "logistic population growth" and the definition is:
Population growth that levels off as population size approaches carrying capacity)
density
The number of individuals per unit area or volume.
dispersion
The pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the geographic population.
density-dependent factors
Word in book is "density dependent" and definition is:

Referring to any characteristic that varies according to an increase in population density.)
density-independent factors example tomatoes die in a frost regardless of how densely they grow

(Word in book is "density independent", definition is:
Referring to any characteristic that is not affected by population density.)
competitive exclusion principle- two species occupying same niche , only one will survive the other is outcompeted

(Word in book is "competitive exclusion", definition is:
The concept that when populations of two similar species compete for the same limited resources, one population will use the resources more efficiently and have a reproductive advantage that will eventually lead to the elimination of the other population.)
ecological niche
The sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
predation
An interaction between species in which one species, the predator, eats the other, the prey.
population dynamics
The study of how complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors influence variations in population size.
symbiosis- most organisms have some kind of relationship with another organism

(Word in book is "symbiosis", definition is:
An ecological relationship between organisms of two different species that live together in direct and intimate contact.)
parasitism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of another, the host, by living wither within or on the host.
mutualism
A symbiotic relationship in which both participants benefit.
ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them.
biotic factors
(Definition of "biotic" is "pertaining to the living organisms in the environment")
(Biotic factors are all the organisms that are part of the individual's environment)
abiotic factors
(Definition of "abiotic" is "Nonliving; referring to physical and chemical properties of an environment")
(Abiotic factors are all the non-living chemical and physical factors, such as temperature, light, water, and nutrients, that influence the distribution and abundance of organisms)

List of abiotic factors: temperature, water, salinity, sunlight, rocks and soil, climate (pg. 1154-1155)
food chains
Word in book is "food chain", definition is "The pathway along which food energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers")
food web- arrows follow the flow of energy
definition of "food web" is "the interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem".)
biomass
The total mass of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particular habitat.
productivity
Definition of "production efficiency" is "The percentage of energy stored in food that is not used for respiration or eliminated as waste.)
producers
Word in book: "producer" def:

An organism that produces organic compounds from CO2 (2 is smaller) by harnessing light energy (in photosynthesis) or by oxidizing inorganic chemicals (in chemosynthetic reactions carried out by some prokaryotes)
carnivore
an animal that mainly eats other animals.
herbivore
An animal that mainly eats plants or algae.
detritivore
A consumer that derives its energy and nutrients from nonliving organic material such as corpses, fallen plant material, and the wastes of living organisms; a decomposer.
Batesian and mullerian mimicry- batesian are fakes, while mullerian all have the real 'weapon'
(Def. of "Müllerian mimicry" is:

A mutual mimicry by two unpalatable species.)

(Def. of "Batesian mimicry" is:

A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators)
Biomes- large areas defined by latitude and yearly rainfall/climate have similar sets of plants and organisms on diff continents.
Definition of "Biome" is:

Any of the world's major ecosystems, often classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment.)
Ecology
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment.
dispersal
The movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density-contributes to the global distribution of organisms
biogeography
The study of the past and present distribution of species
population ecology
The study of populations in relation to their environment
CONCEPT CHECK 53.6 (1195)
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CONCEPT CHECK 54.3
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