Terms in this set (54)
the study of the structure of the body parts and their relationship to one another
it is also called morphology, the science of form.
the study of the function of liveing organisms
the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye.
the study of the general form and superficial markings.
The study of all structures (blood vessels, nerves, muscles) located in a particular region of the body.
The study of structures too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope.
The gross anatomy of the body studied system by system.
The study of cells of the body.
AKA Cytology: analyzing the interal structure of individual cells.
The study of the microscopic structure of tissues.
The study of changes in an individual from conception to old age
The study of the developemental changes that occur before birth.
Examines the fuction of anatomical structures
It considers the physical and chemical processes resposible (for a particular fuction)
The study of the functions of living cells.
The study of the pysiology of special organs
studies the effects of disease on organ or system functions.
Hierarchy of Structural Organization (4 levels)
1. Chemical Level
2. Cellular level
3. Tissue Level
4. Organ Level
1. Chemical Level: atoms combine to form small molecules and larger macro molecules.
Four classes of macromolecules in body: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nuleic acids.
the smallest units of living tissue
Cells and their functional subunits called celluar organelles
consists of groups of similar cells that preform a characteristic function
a structure composed of at least 2 types of tissue types (with the four common) that preforms a specific physiological process or function. Organs cooperate with one another to preform a common function.
The 11 human organ system
feet on floor and slightly apart
head and palms forward
The cardio vascular and lymphatic system are collectivly known as...
the circulatory system because of their interelatted roles in circulating fluids.
refers to body lying face upwrad
refers to the body lying face downward.
Superior and Inferior
Superior- toward the head (the torso is superior to the legs)
Inferior- away from the head (the legs are inerior to the torso)
Anterior and Posterior
Anterior- toward the front of the body
Posterior- toward the back of the body
Medial and Lateral
Medial- Toward the midline
Lateral- away from the midline
Proximal and Distal
Proximal- closer to the orgin of body (torso)
Distal- farther to from the orgin of the body (torso)
Superficial and Deep
Superficial- toward the body (not inernal) i.e skin is superficial to the heart
Deep-away from the body (more internal)
Cranial and Caudal
Cranial- Toward the head
Caudal-Toward the tail
Dorsal and Ventral
Dorsal- toward the back
Ventral- towards the front
-upper middle portion
- either side of epigastric
-lower middle portion
-either side of the umbilical
-either side of hypogastric
-upper back (b/t & just below shoulder blades)
-region b/t the anus and reproductive organs
-genital area where the hair grows
-lower back or groin
Transverse or horizontal
(cross section- perpendicular to long axis, divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Frontal or Coronal
-also parallel to the long axis, divides the body into anterior andposterior parts.
-parallel to long axis, divides body into right and left parts. (also known as midsagittal or medial plane)
- within or interior to
- outside or exterior to
- the main part
- extending from the main part
- pertaining to the wall of a cavity
- pertaining to the organs within a cavity