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Bacterial meningitis can be caused by many species of bacteria and is characterized by

-sudden high fever and intense meningeal inflammation and sometimes petechiae (small hemorrhages of blood vessels in the skin)

Most cases of bacterial meningitis are caused by

-Streptococcus pneumoniae
-Neisseria meningitides (diplococcus organism, only bacterial ,meningitis that becomes epidemic, transmitted by inhalation and respiratory droplets, 100% mortality if untreated)
-Haemophilus influenzae (requires heme and NAD+)
-Streptococcus agalactiae (in newborns)

Another name for Mycobacterium leprae is

-Hansen's disease (leprosy) which manifests as tuberculoid leprosy in patients with a strong immune response or as lepromatous leprosy in those with a weak immune response.

The bacterium cell wall contains a large amount of

-mycolic acid which account for the slow, resistant growth of the bacteria

Diagnosis of leprosy is based on loss of

-sensation in the skin
-the presence of acid-fast rods

Clostridium botulinum produces most deadly bacterial toxins that cause

-botulism poisoning

Botulism poisoning can manifest into

-food borne botulism
-infant botulism
-wound botulism

Botulism neurotoxins prevent

-muscular contraction by preventing the secretion of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction

Clostridium tetani causes

-tetanus by releasing neurotoxin tetanospasmin, which blocks inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS, resulting in severe muscular contractions

Tetanus toxoid provides effective immunity against


Tetanus vaccine contains

-inactivated tetanospasmin

The most common for of meningitis is

-viral meningitis

Most cases are caused by viruses of the genus

-Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae which spread via the blood (viremia)

Polio virus causes

-poliomyelitis (polio) which is expressed as an asymptomatic infection, minor polio, nonparalytic polio, or paralytic polio (least common type of polio)

Postpolio syndrome is a

-muscle deterioration that affects in 80% of polio patients 30-40 years after their original illness

Blood sucking arthropods transmit


Arboviral encephalitis affects

-6 arboviruses cause encephalitis (rarely) in humans

Rabies viruses causes

-rabies a degenerating brain and spinal cord disease that is zoonotic (spread by animals to humans)

Cryptococcal meningitis is

-a mycosis (fungal disease) of the nervous system that can be fatal to AIDS patients and transplant recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs

Cryptococcus neoformans is yeast that

-normally lives in soil and in bird feces and causes cryptococcal meningitis

The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes

-African sleeping sickness when it enters the body via the bite of an infected tse tse fly

The free living amoebae Acanthamoeba and Naegleria cause

-primary amebic meningoencephalopathy, a rare but usually fatal disease found in contact lens solution, dialysis units and swimming pools

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