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Chapter 20 Microbial Diseases of the Nervous Sys.

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Bacterial meningitis can be caused by many species of bacteria and is characterized by
-sudden high fever and intense meningeal inflammation and sometimes petechiae (small hemorrhages of blood vessels in the skin)
Most cases of bacterial meningitis are caused by
-Streptococcus pneumoniae
-Neisseria meningitides (diplococcus organism, only bacterial ,meningitis that becomes epidemic, transmitted by inhalation and respiratory droplets, 100% mortality if untreated)
-Haemophilus influenzae (requires heme and NAD+)
-Listeria
-Streptococcus agalactiae (in newborns)
Another name for Mycobacterium leprae is
-Hansen's disease (leprosy) which manifests as tuberculoid leprosy in patients with a strong immune response or as lepromatous leprosy in those with a weak immune response.
The bacterium cell wall contains a large amount of
-mycolic acid which account for the slow, resistant growth of the bacteria
Diagnosis of leprosy is based on loss of
-sensation in the skin
-disfigurement
-the presence of acid-fast rods
Clostridium botulinum produces most deadly bacterial toxins that cause
-botulism poisoning
Botulism poisoning can manifest into
-food borne botulism
-infant botulism
-wound botulism
Botulism neurotoxins prevent
-muscular contraction by preventing the secretion of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction
Clostridium tetani causes
-tetanus by releasing neurotoxin tetanospasmin, which blocks inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS, resulting in severe muscular contractions
Tetanus toxoid provides effective immunity against
-tetanus
Tetanus vaccine contains
-inactivated tetanospasmin
The most common for of meningitis is
-viral meningitis
Most cases are caused by viruses of the genus
-Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae which spread via the blood (viremia)
Polio virus causes
-poliomyelitis (polio) which is expressed as an asymptomatic infection, minor polio, nonparalytic polio, or paralytic polio (least common type of polio)
Postpolio syndrome is a
-muscle deterioration that affects in 80% of polio patients 30-40 years after their original illness
Blood sucking arthropods transmit
-arboviruses
Arboviral encephalitis affects
-birds
-horses
-rodents
-6 arboviruses cause encephalitis (rarely) in humans
Rabies viruses causes
-rabies a degenerating brain and spinal cord disease that is zoonotic (spread by animals to humans)
Cryptococcal meningitis is
-a mycosis (fungal disease) of the nervous system that can be fatal to AIDS patients and transplant recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs
Cryptococcus neoformans is yeast that
-normally lives in soil and in bird feces and causes cryptococcal meningitis
The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes
-African sleeping sickness when it enters the body via the bite of an infected tse tse fly
The free living amoebae Acanthamoeba and Naegleria cause
-primary amebic meningoencephalopathy, a rare but usually fatal disease found in contact lens solution, dialysis units and swimming pools