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Landmark Supreme Court Cases

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Barron v. Baltimore
States do not have to abide by the Bill of Rights, 1883
Gitlow v. New York
Overturns Barron v. Baltimore, states abide by Bill of Rights, 1925
Schenk v. United States
Clear and Present Danger, 1919
Tinker v. Des Moines
Black arm bands allowed in school (Vietnam War), 1969
Miller v. California
Obscenity --> average person's standard, 1973
Texas v. Johnson
legal to burn a flag, 1989
Reno v. ACLU
internet --> can not sensor for minors, 1997
Everson v. Board of Education
Wall-of-separation principal announced, 1947
Engle v. Vitale
no prayer in public school, 1963
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Three tests described to decide if government is improperly involved with religion, 1971
Mapp v. Ohio
Evidence illegally gathered may not be used in a criminal trial, 1961
Gideon v. Wainwright
Persons charged with a crime have a right to an attorny even if they cannot afford one, 1963
Miranda v. Arizona
desccribes ruling that police must give to arrested persons, 1966
Plessy v. Ferguson
upheld seperate-but-equal facilities for white and black people on railroad cars, 1896
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
seperate public schools are inherently unequal, thus starting racial desegregation, 1954
Griswold v. Connecitcut 1965
found a "right to privacy" in the constitution that would ban any state law againsted selling contraceptives, 1965
Roe v. Wade 1973
state laws againsted abortion were unconstitutional, 1973
Planned Parenthood v. Casey 1992
Reaffirmed Roe v. Wade but upheld certain limits on its use, 1992
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 1978
Quota bans unconstitutional, but diversity was still a legit goal and could take race into account in school addmissions, 1978
Gratz v. Bollinger 2003
numerical benefits cannot be used to admit minorities into college, but race can be a plus factor in making the decisions, 2003
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review, 1803
McCullough v. Maryland
In establishing a national bank, Congress was legally exercising its enumerated powers not sepcifically mentioned in the Constitution, 1819
Brandenburg v. Ohio
Set test for evaluating freedom of speech cases: will the speech incite "imminent lawless action"? 1969
Buckley v. Valeo
Found that a limitation of a candidate's spending on his/her own campaign is a violation of the first amendment, 1976
Board of Education v. Pico
Ruled that boards of education cannot ban certain books from their libraries because of members' views, 1982
Bethel v. Fraser
Schools can prohibit lewd speech in front of a captive audience, 1986
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell
Public figures must prove malice in libel suits, 1988
United States v. Eichman
Declared Flag Protection Act, which made flag-burning illegal, unconstitutional, 1990
Free Speech Coalition v. Ashcroft
Said that the Child Pornography Prevention Broad, in using broad terminology, abridges free speech, 2002
Near v. Minnesota
Government cannot have prior review of a publication, Minnesota "gag law" is unconstitutional, 1931
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
Schools can edit content of student publications, 1988
West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette
Students in public schools may not be compelled to recite the Pledge of Allegiance, 1943
Gregg v. Georgia
Death penalty is not "cruel and unusual punishment" in cases of murder, 1976
Baker v. Carr
One person one vote-state elections (Warren Court's judicial activism.), 1962
Wesberry v. Sanders
One person, one vote (in redistricting for federal elections, each congressional district was to be approximately the same) In Georgia, the 5th district had 3 to 4 times more people than did the other districts, 1964
Clinton v. New York City
Ruled that the law granting the president the line item-veto was unconstitutional, 1998
Escobedo v. Illinois
1964--Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.
Reynolds v. United States
First Amendment protects religious belief, but not criminal practices related to religious belief (polygamy), 1878
Wallace v. Jaffree
Mandatory prayer in schools violates the first amendment, 1985
Oregon v. Smith
Drugs in religious observances, still illegal
Elk Grove Unified District v. Newdow
Teachers can require students to say the pledge of allegiance, Newdow did not have standing to sue because of his custody situation, 2004
Roth v. United States
Obscenity, first amendment protects only speech with some kind of redeeming social importance, 1957
Weeks v. United States
Government doesn't have the right to search someone's home and seize possessions without a search warrant, 1914
New Jersey v. TLO
School officials can search someone's possessions if there is "reasonableness"
Vernonia School District v. Acton
Random drug testing of athletes does not violate the search and seizure clause of the fourth amendment
In Re Gault
Juveniles require due process rights, 1967
Ingraham v. Wright
Eighth amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual" punishment doesn't have to be applied to non-criminal proceedings, such as school discipline, 1977
Roper v. Simmons
The execution of minors violates the "cruel and unusual punishment" clause of the eighth amendment, 2005
Loving v. Virginia
Laws banning the marriage of blacks and whites are unconstitutional, 1967