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Lemon v. Kurtzman
Three tests described to decide if government is improperly involved with religion, 1971
Gideon v. Wainwright
Persons charged with a crime have a right to an attorny even if they cannot afford one, 1963
Plessy v. Ferguson
upheld seperate-but-equal facilities for white and black people on railroad cars, 1896
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
seperate public schools are inherently unequal, thus starting racial desegregation, 1954
Griswold v. Connecitcut 1965
found a "right to privacy" in the constitution that would ban any state law againsted selling contraceptives, 1965
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 1978
Quota bans unconstitutional, but diversity was still a legit goal and could take race into account in school addmissions, 1978
Gratz v. Bollinger 2003
numerical benefits cannot be used to admit minorities into college, but race can be a plus factor in making the decisions, 2003
McCullough v. Maryland
In establishing a national bank, Congress was legally exercising its enumerated powers not sepcifically mentioned in the Constitution, 1819
Brandenburg v. Ohio
Set test for evaluating freedom of speech cases: will the speech incite "imminent lawless action"? 1969
Buckley v. Valeo
Found that a limitation of a candidate's spending on his/her own campaign is a violation of the first amendment, 1976
Board of Education v. Pico
Ruled that boards of education cannot ban certain books from their libraries because of members' views, 1982
United States v. Eichman
Declared Flag Protection Act, which made flag-burning illegal, unconstitutional, 1990
Free Speech Coalition v. Ashcroft
Said that the Child Pornography Prevention Broad, in using broad terminology, abridges free speech, 2002
Near v. Minnesota
Government cannot have prior review of a publication, Minnesota "gag law" is unconstitutional, 1931
West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette
Students in public schools may not be compelled to recite the Pledge of Allegiance, 1943
Wesberry v. Sanders
One person, one vote (in redistricting for federal elections, each congressional district was to be approximately the same) In Georgia, the 5th district had 3 to 4 times more people than did the other districts, 1964
Clinton v. New York City
Ruled that the law granting the president the line item-veto was unconstitutional, 1998
Escobedo v. Illinois
1964--Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.
Reynolds v. United States
First Amendment protects religious belief, but not criminal practices related to religious belief (polygamy), 1878
Elk Grove Unified District v. Newdow
Teachers can require students to say the pledge of allegiance, Newdow did not have standing to sue because of his custody situation, 2004
Roth v. United States
Obscenity, first amendment protects only speech with some kind of redeeming social importance, 1957
Weeks v. United States
Government doesn't have the right to search someone's home and seize possessions without a search warrant, 1914
Vernonia School District v. Acton
Random drug testing of athletes does not violate the search and seizure clause of the fourth amendment
Ingraham v. Wright
Eighth amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual" punishment doesn't have to be applied to non-criminal proceedings, such as school discipline, 1977
Roper v. Simmons
The execution of minors violates the "cruel and unusual punishment" clause of the eighth amendment, 2005
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