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Defensive Tactics
is a system of controlled defensive and offensive body movements used by CRIMINAL JUSTICE OFFICERS to respond to a subject's aggression or resistance.
defensive tactics are based on a combination of
martial arts, wrestling, and boxing.
fitness, strength, agility, balance and flexibility are vital to the development of
defensive tactics
the role of defensive tactics in LEO and corrections is to assist the officer in
restraining or arresting a subject
The CMS criminal justice defensive tactics course provides
basic recruits with training in the physical skills necessary for the use of force in controlling subjects and for self-defense
defensive tactics is a physical endeavor, students should change their daily habits, students should eat a
nutritious diet, get adequate rest, and stay sufficiently hydrated to maximize the benefit of this training
flexibility reduces the risk of
injuries
begin and end each session with
stretching exercises
a warm up session elevates the
heart rate and increases blood circulation to the muscle, which saturates the muscles with oxygen. this helps the body prepare itself for the physical activity.
a cool down after physical activity
redistributes the blood flow, causing the metabolic rate to decrease. this process helps the muscles to relax and prevents the tightening of muscles, which is vital to body recover
stretching usually begins with a warm up such as
running in place, jumping jacks, push ups, or any calisthenics exercises that last for 5-7 minutes.
stretching generally begins at the
top of the body and moves down to the bottom, vice versa.
stretch until you feel mild to
moderate tension
All the stretches she be held for
10-20 seconds
cardiovascular training
is any exercise the elevates the HEART RATE to a range between 60 to 85 percent of the maximum rate
heart disease
the leading cause of premature death for both men and women.
cardiovascular exercise includes
walking, jogging, running, jumping rope, bicycling, swimming, and step aerobics.
a nutritious diet and an adequate intake of water
are necessary for optimal performance in defensive tactics training.
protein
provides energy; builds and repairs body cells; is part of various enzymes, hormones, antibodies
SOURCES: poultry, fish, eggs, legumes(lentils), milk, and milk products, vegetables, grains
carbohydrate
provides energy needed by the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and other cells
SOURCES: breads, cereal grains, pasta, rice, fruit, vegetables, milk, sugar
fat
provides energy and essential fatty acids; carries other fat-soluble nutrients (vitamins); is part of cell membranes, membranes around nerves, hormones, bile
SOURCES: meat, poultry, fish, milk and milk products, nuts and seeds, oils, butter, margarine, salad dressing
Chapter (776) FORCE
governs all use of force by criminal justice officers. even though the statue refers to "law enforcement" officers, the legal guidelines regarding use of force apply equally to corrections and correctional probation officers. the statue identifies two general areas in which an officer's use force is justified; to apprehend a subject and make an arrest, or to defend self or others.
section 776.05 Florida Statue addresses the issue of an officer using force to make an arrest
A law enforcement officer, or any person whom the officer has summoned or
directed to assist him or her, need not retreat or desist from efforts to make a
lawful arrest because of resistance—or threatened resistance to the arrest. The
officer is justified in the use of any force:
(1) Which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary to defend himself or
herself or another from bodily harm while making the arrest;
(2) When necessarily committed in retaking felons who have escaped; or
(3) When necessarily committed in arresting felons fleeing from justice.
However, this subsection shall not constitute a defense in any civil action
for damages brought for the wrongful use of deadly force unless the use of
deadly force was necessary to prevent the arrest from being defeated by
such flight and, when feasible, some warning had been given, and:
(a) The officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon poses a threat of
death or serious physical harm to the officer or others; or
(b) The officer reasonably believes that the fleeing felon has committed
a crime involving the infliction or threatened infliction of serious
physical harm to another person
Section 944.35, F.S. provides:
(1)(a) An employee of the department is authorized to apply physical
force upon an inmate only when and to the extent that it reasonably
appears necessary:
1. To defend himself or herself or another against such other imminent
use of unlawful force;
2. To prevent a person from escaping from a state correctional institution
when the officer reasonably believes that person is lawfully detained in
such institution;
3. To prevent damage to property;
4. To quell a disturbance;
5. To overcome physical resistance to a lawful command; or
6. To administer medical treatment only by or under the supervision of
a physician or his or her designee and only:
a. When treatment is necessary to protect the health of other
persons, as in the case of contagious or venereal diseases; or
b. When treatment is offered in satisfaction of a duty to protect the
inmate against self-inflicted injury or death.
objective reasonableness
to describe the process for
evaluating the appropriateness of an officer's response to a subject's resistance.
Appropriate force
is the amount of force reasonably necessary to make an arrest.
To determine if an officer's actions were objectively reasonable
the courts
look at the facts and circumstances the officer knew when the incident occurred.
Courts recognize that criminal justice officers must make split-second judgments about the
amount of force needed in a particular situation under circumstances that are tense
uncertain, and rapidly evolving
The Supreme Court has made clear
that use of force is a seizure under the
Fourth Amendment
Correctional officers must also consider that use of force may violate the
Eighth Amendment's prohibition against
cruel and unusual punishment.
Much litigation against criminal justice officers is not about the amount of force used,
but whether the use of force was permitted at all. Though the law grants criminal justice officers the right to use force, this right is
conditioned on their official authority.
Correctional officers have full-time authority over inmates due to the
inmates' adjudication and suspension
of civil rights.
A law enforcement officer's authority to use force is established by the officer's reasonable belief
that a crime has been,
is being, or is about to be committed.
Compliance
is the verbal and/or physical yielding to an officer's authority without
apparent threat of resistance or violence
Escalation, de-escalation, and disengagement are important concepts in making
legally and tactically sound,
reasonable responses to resistance.
Escalation
is increasing the use of force or resistance
De-escalation
is decreasing the use of force or resistance.
Disengagement
is discontinuing a command or physical use of
force, for example, by breaking away from a subject.
Officers are legally permitted to escalate their use of force
as the
subject escalates his or her level of resistance
The officer's choices are determined by the subject's actions
and the risk of physical harm posed to the officer or others.
Once the officer achieves control or compliance,
he or she must de-escalate the use of force
Under certain circumstances, disengagement may be the best tactical option, for example,
when the officer is waiting for backup, when the officer is injured or outnumbered,
or when the suspect has superior firepower
3 force levels
escalation, de-escalation, disengagement
Force Guidelines
provide a framework for making decisions involving the reasonable use of force
by criminal justice officers. The structure of the Force Guidelines is based on constitutional considerations
and case law and describes appropriate decision making in a fluid and dynamic situation. The Guidelines
consider the relationship between subject resistance and various situational factors in determining the
officer's response options.
resistance levels (4)
Passive resistance
active resistance
aggressive resistance
deadly force resistance
Passive resistance
is a subject's verbal and/or physical refusal to comply with an officer's lawful direction
causing the officer to use physical techniques to establish control.
Some examples of passive resistance include the following:
The subject refuses to move at the officer's direction.
• The subject peacefully protests at a political event in a public location.
• The subject refuses to take his hands out of his pockets or from behind his back
Active resistance
is a subject's use of physically evasive movements directed toward the officer such as bracing,
tensing, pushing, or pulling to prevent the officer from establishing control over the subject.
Some examples of active resistance include the following:
• The subject physically anchors himself to a person or object to prevent himself from being removed.
• The subject braces or pulls away from the officer when the officer grips the subject's arm.
• The subject attempts to run when the officer touches or attempts to grab the subject's arm or shoulder.
Aggressive resistance
is a subject's attacking movements toward an officer that may cause injury but are not
likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
Some examples of aggressive resistance include the following:
• The subject balls up his fist and approaches the officer.
• The subject pushes the officer back as the officer tries to take the subject into custody.
• The subject grabs any part of the officer's body.
Deadly force resistance
a subject's hostile, attacking movements with or without a weapon that create a
reasonable perception by the officer that the subject intends to cause and has the capability of causing death
or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
Some examples of deadly force resistance include the following:
A subject refuses to drop a knife when ordered to by the officer and moves toward the officer.
• A subject shoots or points a gun at an officer or other person.
• A subject tries to use a vehicle to run down an officer.
Officers should try to resolve a situation with the
least amount of force necessary
Command presence and verbal communication
often will defuse many volatile situations.
Physical force includes (3)
physical control, the use of nonlethal weapons, and deadly force.
Physical control
is achieving compliance or custody through the use of empty-hand or leverage-enhanced
techniques, such as pain compliance, transporters, restraint devices, takedowns, and striking techniques.
A nonlethal weapon
is a weapon that is not fundamentally designed to cause death or great bodily harm.
Some examples of nonlethal weapons include electronic control devices (ECD), dart-firing stun guns such as
a TASER®, expandable batons, flashlights, and chemical agent sprays.
Deadly force
is force that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm. Some examples of deadly force include
use of a firearm, eye gouges, empty-hand strikes to the throat, and impact-weapon strikes to the side of
the neck.
Section 776.06, F.S. states:
(1) The term "deadly force" means force that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm, and
includes, but is not limited to:
a. The firing of a firearm in the direction of the person to be arrested, even though no intent
exists to kill or inflict great bodily harm; and
b. The firing of a firearm at a vehicle in which the person to be arrested is riding.
Section 776.07, F.S., states:
(2) A correctional officer or other law enforcement officer is justified in the use of force, including
deadly force, which he or she reasonably believes to be necessary to prevent the escape from a penal
institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully detained in such
institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense.
Deadly force does not necessarily mean that someone died from the force used. It can cause great
bodily harm or no harm at all. For example, returning fire is deadly force even if the officer misses the target.