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The mining Frontier

-Gold rush brought homesteaders
-Created a crisis over the relative value of gold and silver

The Mining Frontier Significance

Although the gold rush brought many settlers to the west it stimulated economic and political problems in the nations and also caused N.A to lose their land to miners.

The cattle frontier

Also known as ranching place took place in the area from texas to canada
Railroads constructed after the Civil War opened markets in the East to Texas cattle
The idea of the Western cowboy is created during this time.

The cattle frontier Significance

The long cattle drives came to an end due to overgrazing, blizzards and droughts that destroyed the grass, and homesteaders (settlers) who blocked off land with barbed wire.

The farming Frontier

Encourage farming on Great plains
160 acres of public free land for a family who settle 5 years.
promotions of railroad introduced hundreds of thousands of people in attempt to farm the great plains

The farming frontier Significance

Although 160 acres of the land was free, but thousands of people had to purchase their land b/c the best public land ended up w/ railroad companies and speculators.

Barbed Wire; Joseph Glidden

Invented in 1874 by Joseph Glidden
Helped farmers to fence in their land when lumber was scarce on the Great Plains

Barbed Wire Significance

Helped close the cattle frontier when the open range was cut off by homesteaders (settlers of the West) who used barbed wire.

Native american policy reservations

President Jackson policy required the removal of eastern N.A to west.
Land west of MS would permanently be "Indian country"

N.A policy reservations Significance

Although the federal government assigned plain tribes reservation boundaries. most plain tribes refused to restrict their movements and continued to follow roaming buffaloes.

N.A Policy Assimilation and Dawes Severalty Act

Injustices toward N.A were written in a book. which created sympathy for N.A
Dawes act was created to break up tribal organizations.

N.A .. Act significance

Disease and poverty reduced A.A population . Although the Dawes act reached its goal of distribution millions of land to N.A even more of the best land was sold to white settlers by the federal government speculators or N.A themselves.

N.A Resistance wars and Ghost Dance Movement

With large numbers of miners, farmers, and cattlemen moving west, wars with plains indians became inevitable
Sioux warriors fought the u.S army at little big horn
Native religious movement to resist U.S domination and drive the Whites from their land

N.A Resistancfe wars Significance

The massacre of 200 N.A at Wounded knee, SD marked the end of the indian wars on the plains.

The New South

Started by Henry Grady
rgued for economic diversity and laissez-faire capitalism (economy runs w/o government involvement)
A new vision for the south built on capitalist values, industrial growth (factories) and improved transportation.

The new south significance

Although a number of cities in the south prospered by attracting nothern businesses with cheap labor, lower taxes, and railroads, the south largely remained agricultural and poor.

George Washington Carver; Tuskegee Institute

African-american scientist who worked at the Tuskegee Institute
Promoted the growing of crops such as peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans
Found hundreds of uses for peanuts

G.W.C; Tuskegee institute significance

Although his work played an important role in shifting southern agriculture to be more diverse, farmers in the South continued to suffer from cycles of debt and poverty.


North withdrew its protection for freedom and left southerns to work out their own social and economic problems.
Southern democrats won power from business community and white supremacists.

Segregation Signifcance

since the government supported by racist toward blacks ,policies segregated public facilities for blacks and whites. Henry turner formed international migration society i n1894 to help american blacks emigrate to africa. and the National negro business league was establish in 1900

Civil Rights cases of 1883, plessy vs. ferguson.

Congress couldn't legislate against racial discrimination practiced by private citizens including businesses.
1896 Louisiana law as upheld requiring separate but equal accommodation for whites and blacks passengers on railroads.

C.R cases 1833 Significance

since the ruling guaranteed equal protection of laws and did not violate 14th amendment it appropriate for some public places to be segregated.

Changes in Agriculture (technology

Farmers became more dependent on expensive machines , such as steam engines, seeders, and reaper-thresher combines
Large farms became run like factories
small farmers could no compete because they could not afford the new equipment

Agriculture significance

Overproduction of crops lowered the crops' prices which caused farmers to fall into debt and foreclosure. Some small farmers were forced to become tenants or sharecroppers.

National Grange Movement

organized by olive h. kelley as a social and educational organization for farmers and their families.
in northwest grangers established cooperatives , business owned and run by farmers to save the costs charged by middlemen.

National Grange Movement Significance

Grangers lobbied their state legislatures to pass laws regulating the rates charged by railroads and elevators in a landmark case the supreme court upheld the right of a state to regulate businesses of a public nature, (railroads)

Interstate commerce act; interstate commerce commission

Law that require railroad rates to be reasonable and just
The ICC had the power to investigate and prosecute those who had discriminatory practifes toward farmers
First regulatory agency created

Interstate Act Significance

Although the ICC was created t help farmers, the commision helped railroads more by stablizing rates and competition, while also losing many of itsfederal court cases

Wabash v. illionois

Supreme court ruled that individual states could not regulate interstate commerce (trade)
In effect, the court nullified many of the state laws that the grange movement helped create

W. I Significance

Congress responded to the Court's decision by passing the Interstate Commerce Act, which regulated the railroads rates and set up the first regulatory agency the ICC.

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