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a compound that produces hydronium ions (H3O +)


a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-)


the amount of a solute dissolved in a specified amount of solution.


any substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base.


measures how acidic or basic a solution is.. ranges from 0 - 14


the reaction between an acid and a base.

saturated solution

contains as much solute as the solvent can hold at a given temperature.

Unsaturated Solution

solution that has less solute than the maximum that can be dissolved.

Supersaturated Solution

has more solute than it can normally hold at a given temperature.


substance that gets dissolved by the solvent


the substance that takes in or dissolves the other substance


the maximum amount of a solute that dissolves in a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature.


usually described as something dissolved in something else.
same as a homogeneous mixture, 2 or more different substances evenly mixed together.

3 ways to dissolve substances in water

1. dissociation
2. dispersion
3. ionization


ionic compound separates into ions as it dissolves (more force to pull particles apart)


breaking into smaller pieces and spreading out


lose or gain electrons (chemical change)


the number of moles of a solute dissolved per liter of solution.

Properties of Acids

- sour taste
- gritty/ rough texture

Strong acid burns skin, makes holes in clothes
Weak acid is found in many foods, citrus fruits

- turns litmus paper red

Properties of Bases

- taste bitter
- slippery texture
- turns litmus paper blue

Weak base - not dangerous
Strong base - dangerous, breaks down grease

pH scale

measures how acidic or basic a solution is
0 = Strong Acid (0 - 6.9)
7 = Neutral
14 = Strong Base (7.1 - 14)

measure a pH by using an indicator

Universal Solvent

- has a slight negative and positive charge

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