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For Ambrose's class, you're welcome :)

agricultural (neolithic) revolution

invention of planting corps, agriculture


belief in multiple Gods


belief in a single God


make fit for cultivation, domestic life, and service to humans


a society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes


the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls

cultural diffusion

the spread of cultural elements from one society to another


a monarchy with an emperor as head of state


a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside


an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia (Fertile Crescent)

epic poem

a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds (Epic of Gilgamesh) [Fertile Crescent]


a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians dedicated to the Gods (Fertile Crescent)

Hammurabi's Code

A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties. (eye for an eye) [Fertile Crescent]


a set of symbols that represent the sounds of a language (Phonecian Traders)


a large waterfall (the Nile)


a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water (the Nile)


egyptian kings


the belief in government by divine guidance (Egypt)


a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family (China, Egypt)


Huge stone tombs with four triangle-shaped walls that met in a point on top (Egypt)


embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy (Egypt)


an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds

rosetta stone

an inscription of a black basalt stone, first clue to translate hieroglyphics (Egypt)


tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times, silt (Egypt)


Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system. (Indus Valley/India)


Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials. (Indus Valley/India)

urban planning

determining and drawing up plans for the future physical arrangement and condition of a community (Indus Valley/India)

Mandate of Heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source (China)

dynastic cycle

the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties (China)


the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written (Judaism)


Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command. (Judaism)


(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus (Judaism)


people who are said to receive messages from god to be taught to others (Judaism)


Jewish house of worship (Judaism)


the ancient Canaanitic language of the Hebrews that has been revived as the official language of Israel (Judaism)

primary source

text that tells a first-hand account of an event; original works used when researching (letters, journals)

secondary source

text used when researching that is derived from something original (biographies, magazine articles)


the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings


the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

paleolithic period

old stone age

neolithic period

new stone age, new way of farming


an early ancestor of humans


the gradual change in a species over time


all the knowledge and values shared by a society


Time before writing was invented


object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced


the perserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal


a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons


nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system (India)


Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism. (India)


an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism) [India]


a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth (India)


Universal spirit behind everything (India)


the Creator (India)


The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths. (179) [India]


a second or new birth (India)


(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation (India)


in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste (India)


(Hinduism) a hereditary social class among Hindus [India]


the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth (India)

Siddhartha Gautama

founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha (India)


in Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe (India)

4 Noble Truths

Core of Buddha's doctrine; all life involves suffering, desire is the cause of suffering, elimination of desire brings the end to suffering, and disciplined life conducted in accordance with the Eightfold Path brings elimination of desire (India)

Eightfold Path

in buddhism a set of guidelines on how to escape suffering (India)


(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation [India]

Asoka's Edicts

Asoka's teachings carved on pillars (India)

Gupta Empire (Golden Age)

astronomy, mathematics, literature, art, poetry, architecture, medicine and more were advanced (India)

arabic numerals

A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today. (India)


an injections saving you from disease (India)


philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events (China)


the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity (China)

filial piety

respect shown by children for their parents and elders (China)


strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit (China)

Great Wall

Chinese defensive fortification built to keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi. (China)

Shi Huangdi

founder of the Qin dynasty and China's first emperor (China)

Han Empire

A powerful Classical Empire in China from 200BC to 200AD. Responsible for many contributions: Civil Service System, Silk Road, Silk-Making. (China)

silk road

an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles) [China]

Zheng He

Chinese super explorer (China)

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324) [China]


Greek word for city-state (Greece)


the capital and largest city of Greece (Greece)


an ancient Greek city famous for military power (Greece)


an ancient city in Asia Minor that was the site of the Trojan War (Greece)


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them (Greece)


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them (Greece)


state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen (Greece)


a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) [Greece]

Greek mythology

religion in which factors of life are represented by gods or godesess (Greece)


"Lovers of wisdom", a thinker who uses logic and reason (Greece)


Athenian philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method (Greece)


Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society (Athenian) [Greece]


Greek philosopher; student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world (Greece)


temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena (Greece)


Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon. (Greece)

Golden Age of Athens

a period of growth in ancient Athens in intellectual & and artistic learning, including drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, & science (Greece)

Hellenistic Age

The period from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 b.c. to the middle of the first century b.c. It was marked by Greek and Macedonian emigration to areas conquered by Alexander and by the spread of Greek civilization from Greece to northern India. (Greece)

Alexander the Great

Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley, conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC) [Greece]


ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC) [Greece]

Peloponnesian wars

Wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve political unification of Greece (Greece)

Greek architecture

triangular pediments, Greek columns, simplicity, symmetry, balance.

Persian wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131) [Greece]

Roman Republic

the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC (Rome)


one of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic (Rome)

Twelve Tables

the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law (Rome)


the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners (Rome)


lower class, usually small farmers (Rome)

Roman citizenship requirements

all free men, freed slaves had limited citizenship. (Rome)


a ruler who is unconstrained by law (Rome)


a large military unit (Rome)

Julius Caesar

Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power (by Brutus) [Rome]


First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew. (Rome)


The ruler of an empire (Rome)

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180. (Rome)


A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place, gladiators fought (Rome)

Roman roads

allowed for better military transportation and facilitated trade throughout their empire. Cities grew larger and more powerful (Rome)


a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior (Rome)

teachings of Jesus Christ

Became New Testament, love all, sacrifice for the poor (Rome)

New Testament

the second part of the bible; it tells you about the life and teachings of Jesus and about his followers (Rome)


Followers associated most closely with Jesus (Rome)


first four books in the New Testament, part of the Bible containing stories of Jesus, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John (Rome)


Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337) [Rome]


people who performed religious ceremonies (Rome)


the head of the Roman Catholic Church (Rome)

Factors leading to the fall of Rome

inflation; barbarians; struggling economy; weak military (Rome)


a general and progressive increase in prices (Rome)


Huge estates owned by wealthy families (Rome)


hired foreign soldiers, fought for money (Rome)


Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome. (Byzantine Empire)


Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code (Byzantine Empire)


the male head of family or tribe (Byzantine Empire)

Byzantine (Orthodox) Christianity

split from Catholic Church because they did not believe in Pope as supreme ruler of Church


Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam (Islam)


the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace (Islam)


The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam (Islam)


City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231) [Islam]


a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine, Muhammad cleansed of idols (Islam)


the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina


Muslim house of worship (Islam)


tower attached to a muslim mosque (Islam)

Five Pillers

the 5 major duties of every good muslim: dedication to Islam and accepting Muhammad as Allah's messenger, praying five times a day, fasting during Ramadan, giving alms (charity), and making a pilgrimage to Mecca (Islam)


the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah


a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal (Islam)

People of the Book

what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god. (Islam)


language of the Arabs (Islam)


Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. (Islam)


Muslims that believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad should become caliph (Islam)

Sunni-Shiite Split

Muhammad named no religious heir, which sparked an age-old argument on who was his rightful heir. The Shiites believed that Muhammad's cousin, Ali, should be the next caliph, because he was his heir by blood. The Sunnis believed that Abu Bakr, Muhammad's close friend, should be the next caliph because he surpassed others in wisdom and piety. (Islam)


A member of any of the traditionally nomadic peoples of Mongolia (Islam)


the art of beautiful handwriting (Islam)

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