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248 terms

World History Finals - S1

For Ambrose's class, you're welcome :)
STUDY
PLAY
agricultural (neolithic) revolution
invention of planting corps, agriculture
polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
monotheism
belief in a single God
domesticate
make fit for cultivation, domestic life, and service to humans
civilization
a society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
empire
a monarchy with an emperor as head of state
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia (Fertile Crescent)
epic poem
a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds (Epic of Gilgamesh) [Fertile Crescent]
ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians dedicated to the Gods (Fertile Crescent)
Hammurabi's Code
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties. (eye for an eye) [Fertile Crescent]
alphabet
a set of symbols that represent the sounds of a language (Phonecian Traders)
cataract
a large waterfall (the Nile)
delta
a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water (the Nile)
pharoahs
egyptian kings
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance (Egypt)
dynasty
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family (China, Egypt)
pyramids
Huge stone tombs with four triangle-shaped walls that met in a point on top (Egypt)
mummification
embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy (Egypt)
hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
rosetta stone
an inscription of a black basalt stone, first clue to translate hieroglyphics (Egypt)
papyrus
tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times, silt (Egypt)
Mohenjo-Daro
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system. (Indus Valley/India)
Harappa
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials. (Indus Valley/India)
urban planning
determining and drawing up plans for the future physical arrangement and condition of a community (Indus Valley/India)
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source (China)
dynastic cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties (China)
Torah
the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written (Judaism)
Abraham
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command. (Judaism)
Moses
(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus (Judaism)
prophets
people who are said to receive messages from god to be taught to others (Judaism)
synagogue
Jewish house of worship (Judaism)
hebrew
the ancient Canaanitic language of the Hebrews that has been revived as the official language of Israel (Judaism)
primary source
text that tells a first-hand account of an event; original works used when researching (letters, journals)
secondary source
text used when researching that is derived from something original (biographies, magazine articles)
anthropology
the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings
archaeology
the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures
paleolithic period
old stone age
neolithic period
new stone age, new way of farming
hominid
an early ancestor of humans
evolution
the gradual change in a species over time
culture
all the knowledge and values shared by a society
prehistory
Time before writing was invented
artifacts
object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced
fossils
the perserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal
nomad
a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system (India)
Vedas
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism. (India)
sanskrit
an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism) [India]
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth (India)
brahman
Universal spirit behind everything (India)
Brahma
the Creator (India)
moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths. (179) [India]
reincarnation
a second or new birth (India)
karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation (India)
dharma
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste (India)
caste
(Hinduism) a hereditary social class among Hindus [India]
buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth (India)
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha (India)
Enlightenment
in Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe (India)
4 Noble Truths
Core of Buddha's doctrine; all life involves suffering, desire is the cause of suffering, elimination of desire brings the end to suffering, and disciplined life conducted in accordance with the Eightfold Path brings elimination of desire (India)
Eightfold Path
in buddhism a set of guidelines on how to escape suffering (India)
nirvana
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation [India]
Asoka's Edicts
Asoka's teachings carved on pillars (India)
Gupta Empire (Golden Age)
astronomy, mathematics, literature, art, poetry, architecture, medicine and more were advanced (India)
arabic numerals
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today. (India)
vaccination/inoculation
an injections saving you from disease (India)
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events (China)
Confucianism
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity (China)
filial piety
respect shown by children for their parents and elders (China)
legalism
strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit (China)
Great Wall
Chinese defensive fortification built to keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi. (China)
Shi Huangdi
founder of the Qin dynasty and China's first emperor (China)
Han Empire
A powerful Classical Empire in China from 200BC to 200AD. Responsible for many contributions: Civil Service System, Silk Road, Silk-Making. (China)
silk road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles) [China]
Zheng He
Chinese super explorer (China)
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324) [China]
polis
Greek word for city-state (Greece)
Athens
the capital and largest city of Greece (Greece)
Sparta
an ancient Greek city famous for military power (Greece)
Troy
an ancient city in Asia Minor that was the site of the Trojan War (Greece)
democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them (Greece)
republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them (Greece)
monarchy
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen (Greece)
tyranny
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) [Greece]
Greek mythology
religion in which factors of life are represented by gods or godesess (Greece)
philosophers
"Lovers of wisdom", a thinker who uses logic and reason (Greece)
Socrates
Athenian philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method (Greece)
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society (Athenian) [Greece]
Aristotle
Greek philosopher; student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world (Greece)
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena (Greece)
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon. (Greece)
Golden Age of Athens
a period of growth in ancient Athens in intellectual & and artistic learning, including drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, & science (Greece)
Hellenistic Age
The period from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 b.c. to the middle of the first century b.c. It was marked by Greek and Macedonian emigration to areas conquered by Alexander and by the spread of Greek civilization from Greece to northern India. (Greece)
Alexander the Great
Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley, conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC) [Greece]
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC) [Greece]
Peloponnesian wars
Wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve political unification of Greece (Greece)
Greek architecture
triangular pediments, Greek columns, simplicity, symmetry, balance.
Persian wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131) [Greece]
Roman Republic
the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC (Rome)
consul
one of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic (Rome)
Twelve Tables
the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law (Rome)
patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners (Rome)
plebeians
lower class, usually small farmers (Rome)
Roman citizenship requirements
all free men, freed slaves had limited citizenship. (Rome)
dictator
a ruler who is unconstrained by law (Rome)
legion
a large military unit (Rome)
Julius Caesar
Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power (by Brutus) [Rome]
Augustus
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew. (Rome)
emperor
The ruler of an empire (Rome)
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180. (Rome)
Colosseum
A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place, gladiators fought (Rome)
Roman roads
allowed for better military transportation and facilitated trade throughout their empire. Cities grew larger and more powerful (Rome)
Christianity
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior (Rome)
teachings of Jesus Christ
Became New Testament, love all, sacrifice for the poor (Rome)
New Testament
the second part of the bible; it tells you about the life and teachings of Jesus and about his followers (Rome)
apostles
Followers associated most closely with Jesus (Rome)
Gospels
first four books in the New Testament, part of the Bible containing stories of Jesus, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John (Rome)
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337) [Rome]
priests
people who performed religious ceremonies (Rome)
Pope/papacy
the head of the Roman Catholic Church (Rome)
Factors leading to the fall of Rome
inflation; barbarians; struggling economy; weak military (Rome)
inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices (Rome)
latifundia
Huge estates owned by wealthy families (Rome)
mercenaries
hired foreign soldiers, fought for money (Rome)
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome. (Byzantine Empire)
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code (Byzantine Empire)
patriarch
the male head of family or tribe (Byzantine Empire)
Byzantine (Orthodox) Christianity
split from Catholic Church because they did not believe in Pope as supreme ruler of Church
Muhammad
Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam (Islam)
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace (Islam)
Hijra
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam (Islam)
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231) [Islam]
Kaaba
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine, Muhammad cleansed of idols (Islam)
Qu'ran/Quran/Koran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
mosque
Muslim house of worship (Islam)
minarets
tower attached to a muslim mosque (Islam)
Five Pillers
the 5 major duties of every good muslim: dedication to Islam and accepting Muhammad as Allah's messenger, praying five times a day, fasting during Ramadan, giving alms (charity), and making a pilgrimage to Mecca (Islam)
hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal (Islam)
People of the Book
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god. (Islam)
arabic
language of the Arabs (Islam)
Sunnis
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. (Islam)
Shiites
Muslims that believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad should become caliph (Islam)
Sunni-Shiite Split
Muhammad named no religious heir, which sparked an age-old argument on who was his rightful heir. The Shiites believed that Muhammad's cousin, Ali, should be the next caliph, because he was his heir by blood. The Sunnis believed that Abu Bakr, Muhammad's close friend, should be the next caliph because he surpassed others in wisdom and piety. (Islam)
Mongols
A member of any of the traditionally nomadic peoples of Mongolia (Islam)
calligraphy
the art of beautiful handwriting (Islam)
Sahara
the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa (Africa)
Axum
a town of northern Ethiopia. From the first to the eighth century A.D. it was the capital of an empire that controlled much of northern Ethiopia (Africa)
Ghana
the first West African kingdom based on the gold and salt trade (Africa)
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. (See also Timbuktu.) (p. 375) (Africa)
Songhai
a West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591 (Africa)
Mansa Musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa (Africa)
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. (Africa)
griot
a storyteller in West Africa (Africa)
islamic culture
flourishing trade, medical encyclopedia, library, Algebra, spices, silks, perfumes, porcelain, textile goods (Islam)
Trans-Saharan trade
route across the sahara desert. Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the trading (Africa)
Gold-Salt trade
Gold and salt made up trade and wealth in the African kingdoms because the Europeans wanted gold, and the Africans needed salt (Africa)
Mongol Empire
an empire founded in the 12th century by Genghis Khan, which reached its greatest territorial extent in the 13th century, encompassing the larger part of Asia and extending westward to the Dnieper River in eastern Europe. (Asia/Silk Road)
Genghis Kahn
1162-1227. Leader and founder of Mongol tribes of Asia. Ruled from 1206-1227. Occupied most of Asia during reign. (Asia/Silk Road)
Kublai Khan
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China (Asia/Silk Road)
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife (Asia/Silk Road)
Tokugawas
ended a civil war and unified japan, isolated japan from europe (Asia/Silk Road)
Shogun
the supreme military commander of Japan (Asia/Silk Road)
feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service (Asia/Silk Road)
Bushido Code
code of the warrior; obligation to honor & defend emperor, country, and family; willing to volunteer in suicide missions(kamikaze) (Asia/Silk Road)
samurai
feudal Japanese military aristocracy (Asia/Silk Road)
shinto
the native religion and former ethnic cult of Japan (Asia/Silk Road)
silk
a fabric made from the fine threads produced by certain insect larvae (Asia/Silk Road)
spices
These came from the East (India, Indonesia) and were the main source of income for Europe They were used for flavoring and preserving food as well as medicinal purposes, and thus were in high demand by the upper class. Shipping them across the Mediterranean made Venice wealthy, and the Spice trade in general led to many innovations in shipping and navigating. (Asia/Silk Road)
isolation
a country's withdrawal from internal politics (Asia/Silk Road)
medieval
characteristic of the time of chivalry and knighthood in the Middle Ages (Middle Ages)
Germanic
of or relating to the language of Germans (Middle Ages)
Goths
one group of Germanic tribes who flooded into the Roman Empire and later revolted, weakening the empire (Middle Ages)
Franks
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis (Middle Ages)
Muslim Expansion
Muslim spreading of ideas into Europe (Middle Ages)
Charlemagne
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning (Middle Ages)
vikings
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia (Middle Ages)
Magyars
barbarian people who migrated into southern Europe, and in the early 10th century ad occupied Hungary, from where their horsemen raided into France, Italy, Germany, and even Spain (Middle Ages)
vassal
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty (Middle Ages)
manorialism
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land. (Middle Ages)
knight
originally a person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry (Middle Ages)
chivalry
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages (Middle Ages)
Medieval Church
language was latin- people had to follow very strictly- prospered- dominant force in teaching, writing, translating, and in copying (Middle Ages)
sacraments
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church (Middle Ages)
cathedral
any large and important church (Middle Ages)
Romanesque
Style of church architecture using round arches, domes, thick walls, and small windows (Middle Ages)
Gothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries (Middle Ages)
monasticism
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith (Middle Ages)
Canon Law
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals (Middle Ages)
guild
an organization of people in the same craft or trade (Middle Ages)
common law
a legal system based on custom and court rulings (Middle Ages)
Magna Carta
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility (Middle Ages)
Parliament
the lawmaking body of British government (Middle Ages)
Habeas Corpus
a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime (Middle Ages)
Holy Roman Empire
christianity found in rome (Middle Ages)
the Crusades
A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II so that they would be able to gain control of the Holy Land (Middle Ages)
Black Death/Plague
A form of bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th Century and killed an estimated quarter of the population (Middle Ages)
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503). (Renaissance and Reformation)
Michelangelo
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect, painted Sistine Chapel (Renaissance and Reformation)
Raphael
Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520) (Renaissance and Reformation)
Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468), first printed the Bible for the first time (Renaissance and Reformation)
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans (Renaissance and Reformation)
Italian middlemen
average italian man?
humanism
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics (Renaissance and Reformation)
patrons
a person who supports artists, especially financially (Renaissance and Reformation)
slavery
the practice of owning slaves (Renaissance and Reformation)
Middle Passage
mix desire with punishment in the buddhist religion (China)
Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince", a book that recommended harsh and arbitrary rule for princes, a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527) (Renaissance and Reformation)
Castiglione
author of The Book of the Courtier which offered "how-to" advice to a member of the court of the Renaissance (Renaissance and Reformation)
Medici
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century (Renaissance and Reformation)
diffusion of disease
spread of disease on the Columbian Exchange (Renaissance and Reformation)
Ming Dynasty
(ruled 1368-1644) age of exploration, restored Chinese traditions with a more centralized rule, built and ruled by the Forbidden City, with Admiral Zheng He as ruler who explored with a huge fleet, the next emperor isolated them and made them the "hermit kingdom"
Qing Dynasty
(ruled 1644-1911) last Chinese dynasty, continued isolation and rejected trade with the west, when Europe forced them to open, they toppled
Song Dynasty
(ruled from 960-1279) the age of invention, expanded the civil service system allowing anyone to take exams, had lots of art, and invented many things that influence our lives today
Tang Dynasty
(ruled from 618-907 AD) the Golden Age, with Buddhism as the main religion, with the female empress Wu Zetian, in renewed a strong central government with bureaucracy to China
Yuan Dynasty
(ruled 1279-1368) dynasty in china set up by the mongols under the leadership of kublai khan, replaced the song
Akbar the Great
(1542-1605) emperor of the mughal empire in india. he is considered to be their greatest ruler. he is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion.
Maurya Empire
indian empire founded by chandragupta, beginning with his kingdom in northeastern india and spreading to most of northern and central india
Ahimsa
nonviolence
Jainism
a religion founded in india in the 6th century bc, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed
Asoka
grandson of chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
Hagia Sophia
most famous example of byzantine architecture, the church was built under justinian i and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Justinian's Code
laws of the byzantine empire based the twelve tables of roman law, became a basis for laws in many european nations
Autocrat
a cruel and oppressive dictator
Empress Theodora
the most powerful woman in byzantine history, she passed laws and advise her husband, Justinian
Icons
Images of religious figures venerated by Byzantine Christians.
Great Schism
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
Bedouins
Nomadic herders who used camels to cross the desert; Raids for grazing land & frequent warfare
Abu Bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful successor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpreter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Sharia
Islamic law
Social Mobility
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
Abbasid
The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts.
Swahili
a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast
Sultan
A Muslim ruler
Seljuk Turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
Mughal Dynasty
Rulers who controlled most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, set up by Babur
Atman
In Hindu belief, a person's essential self
Buddhist Sects
Theravada and Mahayana
Mahabharata
(Hinduism) a sacred epic Sanskrit poem of India dealing in many episodes with the struggle between two rival families
Fertile Crescent
a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
Mesopotamia
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates
Sumer
An ancient region of southern Mesopotamia which rose around 3300 B.C. The first empire that ruled in Mesopotamia and is credited with inventing writing.
Canopic Jars
used during embalming to hold organs (liver, intestines, stomach, lungs)
Afterlife
life after death
Baghdad
capital and largest city of Iraq