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What are Antigens?

any substance capable or exciting the immune system and provoking an immune response

What are Examples of Antigens?

foreign proteins, nucleic acids, large carbohydrates, some lipids, pollen grains, or microorganisms

What are the 3 important aspects of immune response?

Antigen Specific, Systemic, Has Memory

What is Humoral immunity?

An antibody-mediated immunity; Cells produce chemicals for defense

What is Cellular immunity?

cell-mediated immunity; cells target virus infected cells

How would are "self" antigens react in another person?

The other person's body would trigger an immune response and their own cells would destroy our antigens.

Where do B lymphocytes become immunocompetent?

In the bone marrow

Where do T lymphocytes become immunocompetent?

in the thymus

Where do macrophages arise from?


Where do lymphocytes arise from?

hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow

How does the humoral immune response work?

B lymphocytes remain immature until an antigen binds to it's surface making it a B-cell. The B-cell then creates a large number or clones. Most turn to plasma cells, but a few become long-lived memory cells.

What do plasma cells do?

They produce antibodies to destroy antigens

What do memeory cells do?

Remember the antigen so that if it ever comes again, the body can mount a faster and stronger response.

What are Antibodies?

soluble proteins secreted by B cells (plasma cells) that aare capable of binding specifically to an antigen.

What are the different antibody classes and their roles?

IgM - can fix complement; IgA - found mainly in mucus; IgD - important in activation of B cell; IgG - can cross the placental barrier; IgE - involved in allergies

What are the four ways that antibodies inactivate antigens?

Complemetnt fixation, neutralization, agglutination, and precipitation

How does the cellular immune response work?

Macrophages present the foreign antigen to the Helper T cell. The Helper T cell then secretes chemicals to signal B cells (plasma cells) and Cytotoxic T cells

What is the purpose of Cytotoxic T cells?

to kill infected cells

What is the purpose of Helper T cells?

recruit other cells to fight invaders, interact with B cells, and secrete lymphokines.

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