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From Article


fertilized egg


process of dividing body cells


developmental stage consisting of a solid ball of cells


developmental stage consisting of a hollow ball of cells

ICM (Inner Cell Mass)

group of stem cells found in the blastula that will later become the embryo


developmental stage marked by folding layers of cells to become differentiated body tissues


developmental stage when a distinct form of an organism appears

stem Cells

undefined or undifferentiated cells that can become any type of cell of the body

pluripotent stem cells

cells capable of becoming any type of body cell

multipotent stem cells

cells capable of becoming only a few types of body cells

location of multipotent stem cells

bone marrow, hair follicles, umbilical cord blood, and dental pulp


location of pluripotent cells

somatic nuclear transfer

creating a new embryo by joining an enucleated egg and an adult body cell (cloning)


creating a replica of an original


Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

How IPSCS are made

using transforming factors to reprogram an adult body cell's nucleus back into its embryonic state


cells become specialized cells of the body by having certain genes turned on while turning other's off

cells are already specialized

Why are stem cells NOT obtained from the gastrula stage?


an egg which has had its nucleus removed


biggest road block to developing cures with stem cells

transforming factors

chemicals used to reprogram body cells to make IPSCS

mitosis and differentiation

two processes that allow for zygote the develop into an embryo

zygote, morula, blastula, gastrula, then embryo

What are the stages of embryonic development in order? (same stages seen in all animals)

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