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how are the california condour and the red wolf similar?

they were both taken out of the wild and put in captive breeding programs

number one threat to red wolfs at first; number one threat now

crossbreeding with coyotes; people killing them

what could happen to you if you kill or are caught with something protected by the endangered species act

one year in jail and $100,000 fine

when was yellowstone established?


regionally extinct


the zone immediately along or next to a river or stream


why is the gray wolf a keystone species?

they affect water quality; they eat elk but when they aren't there the elk eat the vegetation in the riparian zone and causes erosion and increased turbidity

how many virgin forests have been logged in the US?


how many wetlands in the US have been filled


how many prairies in the great plains have disappeared?


forests cover __% of the land surface


list 4 ecological services of forests

reduce soil erosion, purify water and air, store atmospheric carbon, absorb and release water

list 4 economic services of forests

lumber, mining, recreation, paper

the 3 types of forests

old growth, second growth, tree plantation

uncut or regenerated forest that has not had significant impact in several hundreds of years.

old growth

what percent of forests are old growth?


where are some old growth forests?

russia, canada, brazil, indonesia, new guinea

stand of trees resulting from natural secondary succession following removal of human activities or natural forces

second growth

what percent of forests are secondary growth?


a managed tract or uniformly aged trees of one or two species that are harvested by clear cutting as soon as they become commercially valuable. the land is then replanted and then clear cut again

tree plantation

how many forests are tree plantations?


intermediate-aged or mature trees in an uneven aged forest are singly cut or in small groups. this reduces crowding, removes diseased trees, maintains many kinds of different species

selective cutting

form of selective cutting in which all the largest trees are removed


2 good things about strip-cutting

it helps erosion and doesn't completely destroy a habitat

the US national forest system contains ___ national forests


usually burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on the forest floor

surface fires

3 good things about fires

burn out invasive underbrush, release nutrients, release seeds from pinecones and other plants

2 fire dependent systems

grasslands and chapparal

the old fire policy

fire suppression (put out every fire)

the new fire policy

only put out fires that dont do anything good for the environment

rainforests make up _% of the earth's surface


primary causes of tropical deforestation

logging, ranching, agriculture (cash crops), population growth

converting deforested areas into tropical grassland (savanna)


decline in productivity


unfenced grasslands


fence grasslands


grasslands in the west; in the east

rangelands; pastures

cattle are confined by portable fencing to one area for a short time and then moved to a new location

rotational grazing

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