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Prentice Hall Exploring Life Biology 9.4-9.6

STUDY
PLAY
benign tumor
abnormal mass of essentially normal cells
malignant tumors
masses of cells that result from the reproduction of cancer cells
cancer
a disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle
metastasis
the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
meiosis
a type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
karyotype
display of the 46 chromosomes of an individual
homologous chromosomes
two chromosomes of each matching pair, one from your mother, one from your father
sex chromosomes
The 23rd pair of chromosomes
Male
xy
Female
xx
diploid
cells that contain two homologous sets of chromosomes (46 in human cells)
gametes
egg and sperm cells, sex cells
haploid
cells that contain a single set of chromosomes (23)
fertilization
the fusion of nuclei along with the cytoplasm from the gametes
zygote
fertilized egg
tetrads
paired chromosomes (four chromatids)
crossing over
the exchange of genetic material between the homologous chromosomes
genetic recombination
the result of crossing over, a single chromosome that contains a new combination of genetic information from different parents