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benign tumor

abnormal mass of essentially normal cells

malignant tumors

masses of cells that result from the reproduction of cancer cells


a disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle


the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site


a type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell


display of the 46 chromosomes of an individual

homologous chromosomes

two chromosomes of each matching pair, one from your mother, one from your father

sex chromosomes

The 23rd pair of chromosomes


cells that contain two homologous sets of chromosomes (46 in human cells)


egg and sperm cells, sex cells


cells that contain a single set of chromosomes (23)


the fusion of nuclei along with the cytoplasm from the gametes


fertilized egg


paired chromosomes (four chromatids)

crossing over

the exchange of genetic material between the homologous chromosomes

genetic recombination

the result of crossing over, a single chromosome that contains a new combination of genetic information from different parents

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