5.6 - Populism
Terms in this set (16)
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925), This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold. It criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver. His beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers.
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892. The political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite.
formed in 1892, the populist party was created by farmers' alliances. The peoples' party supported the abolition of national banks and the government ownership of railroads, Out of the Farmer's Alliance emerged a new political party in the 1890's. Political program: nationalize the railroads, telephone and telegraph, instituting a graduated income tax, create a federal "sub-treasury" (federal loans to farmers to store grain until prices went up), free and unlimited coinage of silver, 8 hour work day.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
became well known during the early 1890's for her actions as a speaker for the populist party. She was a tall, strong woman who made numerous and memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation. Asserted for farmers to "raise less corn and more hell"; Populist spokeswoman
Elected to the U.S congress, became known as a champion of Georgia's farmers. He was a Populist who supported interracial unity, but turned more radical. He tried to unite blacks and whites to form a farmers alliance. He was a layer, largest land owner in Georgia, was head of populist party, and he got the mailmen to deliver the man free to rural area. He also sees himself as the comman man.
Oliver H. Kelley
Considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange"). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good. Worked in the Department of Agriculture and lead the Granger Movement.
The more common name of the Patrons of Husbandry—this organization was formed in 1867 as a support system for struggling western farmers. This organization was a educational and social organization, but under the leadership of Oliver Kelley, this organization began to lobby state and federal governments for legislation that would protect farmers from the effects of big business.
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional, A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.
a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time. Unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy, political organization that organized to collect candidates and to achieve policies that would help them. Later became populist party.
"16 to 1"
The ratio of silver to gold promoted by Bryan's Democratic political platform in 1896, U.S. government policy was to mint silver and gold at a ratio of 16 ounces of silver to 1 ounce of gold; farmers will demand government coin an unlimited amount of silver and gold at 16 to 1
Colored Farmers National Alliance
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org. Tried to unite poor blacks and poor whites for rights against wealthy power merchants.
Gold Standard Act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate.
James B. Weaver
He was from the West. American politician who leaned toward agrarian radicalism; he twice ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. presidency, as the Greenback-Labor candidate (1880) and as the Populist candidate (1892). He was a general during the Civil War. He was chosen as the presidential candidate of the Populist party. He was a Granger with an apt for public speaking. He only ended up getting three percent of the popular votes which is really a large number for a third party candidate.
a person who believes that American currency should be based on a gold standard., referred to those who favored basing the US monetary system on gold to the exclusion of silver.