AP U.S. Government Chapter 2
Terms in this set (24)
What were the major grievances of the colonists under British rule?
• taxation without representation
• direct representation
What were the major components of John Locke's political philosophy?
• Limited Governments
• Natural Rights
• Consent of the Governed
What would of the American a government been like under the Articles of Confederation?
• confederation of states with a powerless national government
• one state = one vote
• no executive branch
• no judicial branch
•congress would have no power to tax or regulate interstate commerce
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail?
There was no national government and it created economic turmoil
Describe the general philosophical views of the founding fathers on the following issues:
Objectives of Government
Nature of Government
Human Nature: self interested
Political Conflict: leads to factions
Objectives of Government: protect your property
Nature of Government: sets power against power so that no one faction rises above
What were the three major equality issues at the Constitutional a convention? How were they resolved?
• States Equally Represented (Connecticut Compromise)
• Slavery (3/5 Compromise)
• Equality of Voting (decided to leave those issues to the states)
What were the major economic problems addressed at the Constitutional Convention? How were they resolved?
• paper money was basically worthless (coined our own money)
• congress couldn't raise money (levy taxes, borrow money, pay debts)
Why did the founding fathers believe it was not necessary to address the individual rights issues specifically in the Constitution?
Because they were already constructing a limited government, dispersing powers among the 3 branches, and various states were already doing a sufficient job at keeping individual rights
What is the responsibility of the Legislative Branch? (Congress)
To create laws
What is the responsibility of the Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)?
To interpret laws
What is the responsibility of the Executive Branch (The President)?
To enforce laws
What checks and balances does each branch have on each other?
Legislative -> Judicial:
- approves federal judges
Judicial -> Legislative:
- can declare laws unconstitutional
Executive -> Legislative:
- vetoes bills
Legislative -> Executive:
- override veto
Executive -> Judicial:
- pardon power
- power to appoint judges
Judicial -> Executive:
- declare acts as president unconstitutional
Define constitutional republic
System based on consent of governed in which representatives exercise power
What were the federalist thoughts on civil liberties, power of the states, and the economy?
Civil liberties: protected in our constitution already
Power of the states: power to the government
Economy; protect the elite by having the government protect it
What were the anti-federalist thoughts on civil liberties, power of the states, and the economy?
Civil liberties: wanted the bill of rights
Power of the states: power to the states
Economy: having states protect it
Why did the anti-federalists believe the new constitution was a class-based document?
Because they though it was intended to ensure that a particular economic elite controlled the public policies
What is an unwritten constitution?
A constitution that is not embodied in a single document but based chiefly on the ideas and processes from the American Government
Describe the different ways in which a formal constitutional amendment might be adopted
Proposal- 2/3 of each house of congress or by a national convention
Ratification- legislatures of 3/4 of the states or by special state conventions
(President has no formal role in amending)
Define and give an example of judicial interpretation (four ways constitution changes informally)
Definition: power to determine whether acts of congress and the executive are in accord with the U.S. Constitution
Ex: Marbury v. Madison
Define and give an example of the political practice (four ways constitution changes informally)
Definition: stretching, shaping, and giving new meaning to politics
Ex: electoral college and political parties
Define and give an example of technology (four ways constitution changes informally)
Definition: the effect new technology has on our constitution
Ex: questioning governmental policies (Internet) and atomic weapons
Define and give an example of the demands on policymakers (four ways constitution changes informally)
Definition: the effect of the evolution of the United States and how the people want it to adapt or change
Ex: war on terrorism and the Patriot Act
What were the five constitutional amendments that expanded the right to vote? (explain)
• 15th - prohibited discrimination of race for determining voter eligibility
• 19th - gave women the right to vote
• 23rd - Washington D.C. residents can vote
• 24th - cut poll taxes (discriminated the poor)
• 26th - lowered the voting eligibility age to 18 years olf
In what ways does the constitution expand and diminish the scope of the government?
Checks and balances- all groups can have their demands heard
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