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43 terms

microbiology

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prokaryote
single celled microorganism that lacks a nucleus
coccus
spherical prokaryote
flagellum
whiplike structure on some cells used for movement
chemoautotroph
prokaryote that obtailns energy directly from inorganic molecules using chemical reactions
binary fission
type of asexual reproduction in which a prokaryote replicates it's DNA and divides in half, producing two daughter cells
endospore
type of spore produced when a bacterium makes a thick internal wall enclosing it's DNA and some cytoplasm
pathogen
disease causing agent such as a bacterium or fungus
sterilization
process of destroying bacterium using chemicals or heat
lytic infection
process in which a virus enters a cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burst
retrovirus
virus that contains RNA as it's genetic information
bacillius
rod shaped prokaryote
spirillium
spiral or corkscrew shaped prokaryote
photoautotroph
photosynthetic prokaryote
photoheterotroph
subsides by photosynthesis and consumption of organic compounds
conjugation
form of sexual reproduction, prokaryote or paramecia genitic enfo exchange
nitrogen fixation
conversion of nitrogen gas into amonia
antibiotic
compound that blocks growth and reproduction of bacteria
virus
particle taht can only exist by infecting other organisms
lysogenic infection
process by which virus DNA implants in the host cell's DNA and replicates with it
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
protist
any eukaryote that is not a plant, an animal, or a fungus
amoeboid movement
type of locomotion used by ameobas
cilium
short hairlike projection similar to a flagellum, produces movement in many cells
gullet
indentation in one side of a ciliate that allows food to enter the cell
contractile vacuole
cavity in the cytoplasm of someprotists that collects water and discharges it from the cell
eyespot
group of cells that can detect changes in the amount of light in the environment
phytoplankton
population of algae and other small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming part of plankton
pseudopod
projection of cytoplasm or false foot used by some protists for feeding or movement
food vacuole
small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food
trichocyst
small, bottle-shaped structures used for defense by paramecia
anal pore
region of the cell membrane of a ciliate where waste-containing food vacuoles fuse and are then emptied into the environment
accessory pigment
compound other than chlorophyl that absorbs light at different wavelengths than chlorophyll
pellicle
cell membrane in euglenas
algal bloom
an immediate increase in the amount of algae
chitin
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeltons of arthropods
mycelium
many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi
rhizoid
in fungi, a rootlike hypha that penetrates the surface of an object
lichen
symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
hypha
tiny filament that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold
fruiting body
reproductive structure of fungus that develops from a mycelium
saprobe
organism that obtains food from deccaying organic matter
prophage
the viral DNA that is embedded in the host's DNA
oncogenic virus
certain viruses that cause cancer in animals