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100 terms

Semester Review Ch. 1-7

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Biosphere
thin layer of air, land, and water that is home to all living things
organism
any living thing
Spontaneous generation
belief that life can come from nonliving things
Francisco Redi
did experiment with red meat to disprove idea of Spontaneous Generation
Biogenesis
principle that life only comes fromlife
Characteristics of life
1. Organization
2. Energy
3. Growth and Development
4. Reproduction
5. Response and Adaptation
cell
basic unit of organization in all living things
growth
an increase in matter
development
change in shape or form
reproduction
process through which new living things are formed
response
reaction to a change in the environment
adaptation
way for an entire population to respond to changes in the environment
Levels of organization
1. Cells
2. Tissues
3. Organs
4. Systems
tissues
group of cells working together to perform a specific function
organs
made of several tissues that function for a specific purpose
systems
several organs working together to perform a major function
predator
organism that kills and eats other organisms
prey
organism that gets eaten
symbiosis
organisms of different species depending on each other
mutualism
both partners benefit
commensalism
one partner benefits and the other is unharmed
parasitism
one member benefits and the other is harmed
Scientific Method
common steps used to gather information to solve problems
experiment
procedure that tests a hypothesis by a process of collecting information under controlled conditions
control
standard in which all things are kept the same
variable
the condition in an experiment that is changed
theory
hypothesis that has been supported by statistical data over a period of time
homeostasis
maintenance of a stable set of internal conditions within an organism
Robert Hooke
British scientist credited with discovering the cell while looking at cork
cell theory
1. cell is the basic unit of life
2. all organisms are made of one or more cells
3. all cells come from existing cells
cell membrane's structure
fluid-mosaic model presents the modern view of _____
prokaryotes
organisms without a nucleus
eukaryotes
organisms with a nucleus and organelles
diffusion
movement of molecules form an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
isotonoic
when the concentrations of water inside and outside the cell are equal
phosphates
a cell membrane is a thin layer of lipids and _________
vacuole
the function of this structore is to store water, ions and wastes
cytoplasm
the liquid between the cell membrane and the nucleus
small molecules, high temperature
combination where molecules would diffuse faster
organelle
structure that carries out a specific function (nucleus, mitochondria, ribosome, etc.)
hypotonic solution
concentration of water outside the cell is lower than the concentration of water in the cell
lysosomes
organelle that rides cells of poisons and toxic wastes
animal cell
cell that does not have a cell wall
mitochondria
abundant supply located in an athlete's leg muscles
phagocytosis
when a cell membrane encloses and takes in food particles
exocytosis
when the cell membrane opens up to get rid of waste products
transmission electron microscope
used to view a 3-D image of a cell wall
nucleus
control center of the cell
mitochondria
functions to produce the cell's energy
cytoskeleton
fibrous elements that give the cell support
lysosomes
contain digestive enzymes to digest wastes
ribosomes
little black organelles involved in protein synthesis
chromosomes
thin strands of DNA that contain the genetic blueprints
golgi bodies
membrane bound sacs that package proteins
cell wall
rigid outer structure found in plants
nuclear membrane
has pores that allow materials to move in and out of the cell
hypertonic solution
concentration outside the cell is lower so the water moves out of the cell
Thymine
in DNA, the amount of adenine equals the amount of
DNA
geneticists Chase and Hershey confirmed that the molecule of heredity was
Sex-Influenced Trait
expression of a trait is caused by hormones, expressed in both sexes but expressed differently (Baldness is an example of this)
Gene Mapping
method scientists use to locate genes on chromosomes
Nitrogen Bases
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine are called
Nondisjunction
failure of chromosomes to separate correctly during cell division
X Chromosome
Sex linked traits are normally carried on the
Guanine
base that pairs with Cytosine
Monosomy
having only one copy of a chromosome
Replication
process by which DNA copies itself
Polyploidy
when nondisjunction occurs in all chromosome pairs
Crick
one of the scientists who made the model of DNA
Nucleotide
basic unit of DNA
Karyotype
photograph showing all of an organism's chromosomes
Sex Linked Traits
a recessive trait that is found on the X chromosome
Sex Limitied Traits
are only expressed in the presence of sex hormones
Trisomy
having three copies of a chromosomes
Autosomes
22 pairs of matching homologous chromosomes
Double Helix
a spiral twisted ladder made up of sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate molecules
Human Genome Project
trying to sequence all of the DNA in the human body, supporters say all information is helpful, opposers don't think information useful
pp
homozyous recessive individual
Codominance
Type AB blood is an example
PP x pp
symbolizes a cross between a purebred tall plant and purebred short plant
1:1
genotypic ratio of an offspring from a heterozygous tall plant crossed with a short plant
Law of Segregation
states that during meiosis each pair of alleles separates
Carrier
carries a recessive trait that is not expressed
Heterozygous
organism with the genotype Bb
Probability
is represented as a fraction, ratio, or percentage
Polygenic Trait
eye color, which involves many genetic factors
Incomplete Dominance
shown when a red flowering plant is crossed with a white flowering plant and only pink flowering plants are produced
Trait
characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring
Monohybrid Cross
study the inheritance of only one trait
Genotype
acutal genes that are in a cell
Homozygous
when both genes of a pair are the same
Heterozygous
when paired genes are different from each other
Genetics
study of heredity
Dominant
stronger or more forecefull trait
Phenotype
the way that a trait looks
Law of Independent Assortment
genes for different traits are inherited indpendently of each other
Pedigree
chart that shows how a trait is inherited in a family
Alleles
genes that have contrasting effects
Test Cross
cross of a homozygous recessive with an unknown Genotype
Punnett Square
grid for organizing genetic information