Get ahead with a $300 test prep scholarship
| Enter to win by Tuesday 9/24
Chapter 6: Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy
Terms in this set (40)
A graph of light absorption versus wavelength of light; shows how much light is absorbed at each wavelength.
A graph of a biological process versus light wavelength; shows which wavelengths are involved in the process.
Requiring molecular oxygen, O2. (Contrast with anaerobic.)
Occurring without the use of molecular oxygen, O2. (Contrast with aerobic.)
An integral membrane protein that couples the transport of protons with the formation of ATP.
An organism that is capable of living exclusively on inorganic materials, water, and an energy source other than the chemical bonds of organic compounds. Some autotrophs (photoautotrophs) use sunlight as their energy source. Others (chemoautotrophs) use oxidation of inorganic compounds. (Contrast with heterotroph.)
The stage of photosynthesis in which CO2 reacts with RuBP to form 3PG, 3PG is reduced to a sugar, and RuBP is regenerated, while other products are released to the rest of the plant. Also known as the Calvinâ€"Benson cycle.
The phase of photosynthesis in which chemical energy captured in the light reactions is used to drive the reduction of CO2 to form carbohydrates.
The catabolic pathways by which electrons are removed from various molecules and passed through intermediate electron carriers to O2, generating H2O and releasing energy.
Formation of ATP in mitochondria and chloroplasts, resulting from a pumping of protons across a membrane (against a gradient of electrical charge and of pH), followed by the return of the protons through a protein channel with ATP synthase activity.
Any of several green pigments associated with chloroplasts or with certain bacterial membranes; responsible for trapping light energy for photosynthesis.
citric acid cycle
In cellular respiration, a set of chemical reactions whereby acetyl CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms are stored as NADH and FADH2. Also called the Krebs cycle.
coenzyme A (CoA)
A coenzyme used in various biochemical reactions as a carrier of acyl groups.
cyclic electron transport
In photosynthetic light reactions, the flow of electrons that produces ATP but no NADPH or O2.
A self-propagating wave that travels though space and has both electrical and magnetic properties.
The passage of electrons through a series of proteins with a release of energy which may be captured in a concentration gradient or in chemical form such as NADH or ATP.
(1) Speaking specifically about energy metabolism, the anaerobic degradation of a substance such as glucose to smaller molecules such as lactic acid or alcohol with the extraction of energy. (2) Speaking generally, metabolic processes that occur in the absence of O2.
The biochemical synthesis of glucose from other substances, such as amino acids, lactate, and glycerol.
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)
A phosphorylated three-carbon sugar; an intermediate in glycolysis and photosynthetic carbon fixation.
The enzymatic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid.
An organism that requires preformed organic molecules as sources of energy and chemical building blocks. (Contrast with autotroph.)
lactic acid fermentation
Anaerobic series of reactions that convert glucose to lactic acid, in some bacteria and animal cells.
In photosynthesis, a group of different molecules that cooperate to absorb light energy and transfer it to a reaction center. Also called antenna system.
The initial phase of photosynthesis, in which light energy is converted into chemical energy.
Relative loss of electrons in a chemical reaction; either outright removal to form an ion, or the sharing of electrons with substances having a greater affinity for them, such as oxygen. Most oxidations, including biological ones, are associated with the liberation of energy. (Contrast with reduction.)
ATP formation in the mitochondrion, associated with flow of electrons through the respiratory chain.
A quantum of visible radiation; a â€œpacketâ€ of light energy.
Metabolic processes carried out by green plants and cyanobacteria, by which visible light is trapped and the energy used to convert CO2 into organic compounds.
A light-harvesting complex in the chloroplast thylakoid composed of pigments and proteins.
In photosynthesis, the complex that absorbs light at 700 nm, passing electrons to ferrodoxin and thence to NADPH.
In photosynthesis, the complex that absorbs light at 680 nm, passing electrons to the electron transport chain in the chloroplast.
A substance that absorbs visible light.
Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and CO2 that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix in the presence of O2.
A group of electron transfer proteins that receive energy from light-absorbing pigments and convert it to chemical energy by redox reactions.
A chemical reaction in which one reactant becomes oxidized and the other becomes reduced. Short for reductionâ€"oxidation reaction.
Gain of electrons by a chemical reactant; any reduction is accompanied by an oxidation. (Contrast with oxidation.)
The terminal reactions of cellular respiration, in which electrons are passed from NAD or FAD, through a series of intermediate carriers, to molecular oxygen, with the concomitant production of ATP.
ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase
Contraction of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the enzyme that combines carbon dioxide or oxygen with ribulose bisphosphate to catalyze the first step of photosynthetic carbon fixation or photorespiration, respectively.
The distance between successive peaks of a wave train, such as electromagnetic radiation.