A large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single leader or government; usually had a power military and administrative institutions capable of organizing human activities over long distances; often had to deal with ethnically and culturally diverse populations due to their size
A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials - notably used in large empires like Han Dynasty China and Rome.
The division of society by rank or class.
Money that the gov receives from taxation. Governments use tax revenue from individuals and businesses to provide goods and services.
a privileged class holding hereditary (born into the family) titles
a group or class of persons enjoying superior social and/or economic status; often those with a higher level of education, privilege, and/or wealth than the population at large; appeasing the elites was key to maintaining political power
Someone who is legally considered to be a member of a country.
Unpaid labor required by a governing authority; a method used by imperial societies to maintain food production and the building of monumental architecture
Defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of the goods and labor; a method used by imperial societies to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of elites
a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith; occurred to Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism in the 600 BCE - 600 CE time period as they spread and blended with local traditions
The practice of conducting negotiations between countries or empires as a means of avoiding physical conflict
These carried ships on the Indian Ocean between India and Africa; facilitated trade