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Industrial Revolution

begun about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.

spinning jenny

a machine that could spin several threads at once




a person who invests in a buisness in order to make a profit

factory system

brought workers and machinery together in one place to produce goods

interchangeable parts

all machine-made parts would be alike

Lowell girls

Young, single women from New England farms that had experience for the textile industry and were cheaper to hire than males. Lived in company-owned boardinghouses where older women acted as chaperones.


the movement of the population from farms to cities


flat-bottom boats


toll roads

Lancaster Turnpike

Built in the 1790's by a private company, the road linked Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

corduroy roads

roads made of logs

National Road

approved by congress in 1806. a road that ran from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling in western Virginia


Fulton's steamboat in 1807 which powered on/by a newly designed engine. It took the Clermont 62 hours to go 300 miles from New York to Albany and back

Erie Canal

A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.


loyalty to one's state or section rather than to the nation as a whole

American System

Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.

internal improvements

improvements for birdges, roads, and canals

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere

Gibbons v. Ogden

Supreme Court decision that ruled that the Constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.

interstate commerce

trade between different states


people born to Spanish parents

Republic of Great Columbia

present day nations of Venezula, Colombia, Ecuador and Panama

United Provinces of Central America

federation of of the present-day nations o Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica established in 1823 after these states declared dependence from Spain

Negro Fort

settlement of escaped African American slaves in the Spanish colony of Florida

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.


direct involvement

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