79 terms

Biology CH 23

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Roots
absorb water and dissolved nutrients
Roots
anchor plants in the ground
Roots
protect the plant from harmful soil bacteria and fungi
Stems
are a support system for the plant body
Stems
a transport system that carries nutrients
Stems
a defense system that protect the plant against predators and disease
Leaves
are a plants main photosynthetic system
Leaves
increase the amount of sunlight plants absorb
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
adjustable pores conserve water and let what enter and exit the leaf
Dermal tissue vascular tissue ground tissue
plants consist of three main tissue systems
Epidermal cells
the outer covering of a plant consists of
Epidermal cells
what cells make up dermal tissue
Cuticle
the outer surfaces of epidermal cells are covered with a thick waxy layer, known as the
Injury
the cuticle protects against water loss and
Root hair
in roots the dermal tissue includes what type of hair
Guard cells
these cells regulate water loss and gas exchange and our located on the underside of leaves
Vascular tissue
this tissue forms a transport system that moves water and nutrients throughout the plant
Xylem
consists of tracheids
Phloem
consists of sieve tube elements and companion cells
Ground tissues
cells that lie between dermal and vascular tissues make up the
Tips of roots and stems
in most plants new cells are produced at the
Meristem
a cluster of tissue that is responsible for continuing growth throughout a plants lifetime
Undifferentiated
the new cells produced in meristematic tissue are
Differentiate
as the cells develop into mature cells, they
Differentiation
this is the process in which cells become specialized in structure
Vascular tissue
as the cells differentiate they produce ground and
Apical meristem
near the tip of each growing stem and root is an
Apical meristem
a group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems
Mitosis
meristematic tissue is the only plant tissue that produces new cells by
Taproots fibrous roots
the two main types of roots are
Taproots
these roots are found mainly in dicots
Fibrous roots
these roots are found mainly in monocots
Carrot
an example of a taproot is a
Dermal vascular and ground tissue
roots contain cells from
Epidermis
a mature root has an outside layer called the
Water and mineral transport
the root system plays a key role in
Root hairs
the roots surface is covered with cellular projections called
Epidermis
what protects the root and absorbs water
Cortex
inside the epidermis is a layer of ground tissue called the
Endodermis
the cortex extends to another layer of cells called the
Vascular cylinder
this is the central region of a root that includes the xylem and phloem
Roots
these grow in length as their apical meristem produces new cells near the root tip
Root cap
new cells are covered by the
Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soil
roots anchor a plant in the ground and
Nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium calcium
the most important nutrients plants need to include
ATP
transport proteins use what to pump mineral ions from the soil into the plant
Osmosis
when water moves into the vascular cylinder and into the xylem its called
Minerals
what is pumped into the vascular cylinder
Xylem
the root pressure forces water through the vascular cylinder and into the
Stems
they produce leaves, branches and flowers
Stems
they hold up leaves to the sunlight
Stems
they transport substances between roots and leaves
Epidermal cells
stems are surrounded by a layer of what
Nodes
leaves attach to the stem at structures called
Internodes
the regions of stem between the nodes are called
Buds
what contains undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and leaves
Primary growth
all seed plants undergo what growth that increases in length
Roots and shoots
for the entire life time of the plant new cells are produced at the tips of what
Apical meristem
primary growth of stems is produced by cell divisions in the
Secondary growth
the method of growth in which stems increase in width is called
Conifers and dicots
in what type of plants does secondary growth take place in the vascular cambium and cork cambium
Vascular cambium
what produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of stems over time
Cork cambium
what produces the outer covering of stems
Photosynthesis
the structure of a leaf is optimized for absorbing light and carrying out
Blades
to collect sunlight most leaves have thin flattened sections called
Petiole
the blade is attached to the stalk called a
Simple
what leaves have only one blade and one petiole
Compound
what leaves have several blades
Mesophyll
most leaves consist of a specialized ground tissue known as
Stomata
what are porelike openings in the underside of the leag that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to difuse into and out of the leaf
Guard cells
what are specialized cells that control the opening and closing by stomata by responding to changes in water
Gases
the surfaces of spongy mesophyll cells are kept moist so what can enter and leave the cells easily
Water
what evaporates from these surfaces and is lost in the atmosphere
Transpiration
what is the loss of water through the plant leaves
Wilting
when to much water is lost what occurs
Stomata
plant leaves allow gas exchange between air spaces in the spongy mesophyll and the exterior by opening the
Guard cells
stomata open and close in response to changes in water pressure within the
Active
stomata open in daytime when photosynthesis is
Converse water
in hot dry conditions stomata may close even in bright sunlight to