Biology CH 23

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Terms in this set (79)
Epidermal cellsthe outer covering of a plant consists ofEpidermal cellswhat cells make up dermal tissueCuticlethe outer surfaces of epidermal cells are covered with a thick waxy layer, known as theInjurythe cuticle protects against water loss andRoot hairin roots the dermal tissue includes what type of hairGuard cellsthese cells regulate water loss and gas exchange and our located on the underside of leavesVascular tissuethis tissue forms a transport system that moves water and nutrients throughout the plantXylemconsists of tracheidsPhloemconsists of sieve tube elements and companion cellsGround tissuescells that lie between dermal and vascular tissues make up theTips of roots and stemsin most plants new cells are produced at theMeristema cluster of tissue that is responsible for continuing growth throughout a plants lifetimeUndifferentiatedthe new cells produced in meristematic tissue areDifferentiateas the cells develop into mature cells, theyDifferentiationthis is the process in which cells become specialized in structureVascular tissueas the cells differentiate they produce ground andApical meristemnear the tip of each growing stem and root is anApical meristema group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stemsMitosismeristematic tissue is the only plant tissue that produces new cells byTaproots fibrous rootsthe two main types of roots areTaprootsthese roots are found mainly in dicotsFibrous rootsthese roots are found mainly in monocotsCarrotan example of a taproot is aDermal vascular and ground tissueroots contain cells fromEpidermisa mature root has an outside layer called theWater and mineral transportthe root system plays a key role inRoot hairsthe roots surface is covered with cellular projections calledEpidermiswhat protects the root and absorbs waterCortexinside the epidermis is a layer of ground tissue called theEndodermisthe cortex extends to another layer of cells called theVascular cylinderthis is the central region of a root that includes the xylem and phloemRootsthese grow in length as their apical meristem produces new cells near the root tipRoot capnew cells are covered by theAbsorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soilroots anchor a plant in the ground andNitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium calciumthe most important nutrients plants need to includeATPtransport proteins use what to pump mineral ions from the soil into the plantOsmosiswhen water moves into the vascular cylinder and into the xylem its calledMineralswhat is pumped into the vascular cylinderXylemthe root pressure forces water through the vascular cylinder and into theStemsthey produce leaves, branches and flowersStemsthey hold up leaves to the sunlightStemsthey transport substances between roots and leavesEpidermal cellsstems are surrounded by a layer of whatNodesleaves attach to the stem at structures calledInternodesthe regions of stem between the nodes are calledBudswhat contains undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and leavesPrimary growthall seed plants undergo what growth that increases in lengthRoots and shootsfor the entire life time of the plant new cells are produced at the tips of whatApical meristemprimary growth of stems is produced by cell divisions in theSecondary growththe method of growth in which stems increase in width is calledConifers and dicotsin what type of plants does secondary growth take place in the vascular cambium and cork cambiumVascular cambiumwhat produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of stems over timeCork cambiumwhat produces the outer covering of stemsPhotosynthesisthe structure of a leaf is optimized for absorbing light and carrying outBladesto collect sunlight most leaves have thin flattened sections calledPetiolethe blade is attached to the stalk called aSimplewhat leaves have only one blade and one petioleCompoundwhat leaves have several bladesMesophyllmost leaves consist of a specialized ground tissue known asStomatawhat are porelike openings in the underside of the leag that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to difuse into and out of the leafGuard cellswhat are specialized cells that control the opening and closing by stomata by responding to changes in waterGasesthe surfaces of spongy mesophyll cells are kept moist so what can enter and leave the cells easilyWaterwhat evaporates from these surfaces and is lost in the atmosphereTranspirationwhat is the loss of water through the plant leavesWiltingwhen to much water is lost what occursStomataplant leaves allow gas exchange between air spaces in the spongy mesophyll and the exterior by opening theGuard cellsstomata open and close in response to changes in water pressure within theActivestomata open in daytime when photosynthesis isConverse waterin hot dry conditions stomata may close even in bright sunlight to