Ecology Chapter 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (67)
collect energy to produce their own food (make their own food) Ex. Plants, Alga
Eat only animals
Eat or break down dead things
Eat only plants
Get energy by eating other organisms
Eat both plants and animals
Which would be found at the bottom of an ecological pyramid? consumers or producers
Why is an ecological pyramid smaller at the top than at the bottom?
Because there is more energy on the bottom and you need more at the bottom to support what is at the top
Detritivores are important part of the ecosystem because they help recycle ___________.
all LIVING organisms inhabiting (living on) the Earth Ex. Bears, Humans, Trees, Plants, Animals
NONLIVING parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)
the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer
Biosphere -> Biomes -> Ecosystem -> Community -> Population -> organism Are the levels of ___________
any unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all of the characteristics of life, an individual.
Organism is the (Highest/ lowest) level of organization
a group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed, Produce fertile offspring, Compete with each other for resources (food, mates, shelter, etc.)
several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment and are interdependent.
populations in a community and the abiotic factors with which they interact (ex. marine, terrestrial)
life supporting portions of Earth composed of air, land, fresh water, and salt water. It is the highest level of organization
the role (job) a species plays in a community; its total way of life
the place in which an organism lives out its life Ex. A lion might live on a certain piece of land
any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment.
1. Producer - Consumer
2. Predator - Prey
3. Parasite - Host
Are the three types of __________
all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sun
Bottom of the food chain
all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun's energy
A bird eating a fish is an example of _____.
What is a weakness of traditional food webs when they are applied to complex ecological problems?
A food web does not represent all the links in an actual ecosystem.
___________ is a waste product of the photosynthesis process.
What organism captures atmospheric nitrogen for the process of nitrogen fixation?
_____________ may observe how coral settles on a ship on the bottom of the ocean or test how cyanide is affected by algae.
________ beneficial to both species Ex. Ex. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp
Ecologist use ___________ instead of doing field studies because it lets them control all of the variable involved.
_________ is made from decomposing matter.
(All , Not All) the biological cycles involve both biotic and abiotic reservoirs.
Carbon trapped on the ocean floor is a part of the ___________ cycle.
Some birds are known as honey guides because that may be followed by humans to wild beehives. When the humans take honey from the hives, the birds are able to feast on the honey and bees, too. This is a _________ relationship.
In an ecological pyramid, where grasses are at the bottom, then grasshoppers, then birds and then fox. __________ is the ultimate sources of energy for the pyramid.
What information could be included in the description of a grasshopper's niche, but not in a description of its habitat?
Plant species it eats
Soil type of an an earthworm would be biotic or abiotic?
Lions are predators that often eat weakened or diseased animals. This is an example of their __________.
In an energy pyramid where grasses are at the bottom, then grasshoppers, then birds and then foxes are at the top, which level has the smallest number of organisms?
5 deer would be example of a ____________.
How long are food chains?
Some organisms with overlapping niches probably have a ___________ relationship.
When farmers use manure on their crops, it helps their plants by increasing soil _________ and phosphorus levels.
____________ allows the flow of energy through an ecosystem to happen.
A flea is an example of what type of symbiosis?
You need sunlight for some body processes, like synthesizing vitamin D, you have to eat a producer to sue solar energy for ___________ and movement.
What type of nutrients have only a short term biogeochemical cycle?
If your favorite plant was growing slow and you wanted to speed up the growth rate, you would use __________ first to speed up the growth.
Bacteria takes nitrogen from the air and converts it to a form usable by plants. This explains _________________.
The _________ cycle moves from an atmospheric gaseous form to the soil through both Abiotic and biotic process, which moves through the food web, then it returned to the soil or to the atmosphere.
The ________ cycle is the least dependent on biotic process
A ______________ would be the easiest way to diagram predatory and parasitic relationship between several species
one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped
one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host) Ex. Ex. lampreys, leeches, fleas, ticks, tapeworm
simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic level. Represents a network of interconnected food chains
In a food chain: Grasses -> Mice -> Cats -> Coyote. If 10,000 units of energy are available at the level of the grasses. How many units of energy would be lost by the time the energy reaches the coyotes?
Living things are made from carbon containing molecules. With that being said, the carbon cycle _____ the only cycle that affects humans. (is, is not)
In a food chain: Grasses -> Mice -> Cats -> Coyote. The Coyote would be considered ______ level consumers
Nitrogen would be a _________ factor. (biotic, abiotic)
Biotic factors that affect an organism include other _______ in that organism's community.
Nitrogen (is, is not) rare.
If nitrogen or phosphorus were added to an ecosystem it ( would / would not) affect animals in the environment.
Volcanic dust from massive volcanic eruptions, (would, would not) affect food webs in an ecosystem.
The biogeochemical cycles and the flow of energy through an ecosystem are ways to describe how biotic and abiotic factors come together. TRUE/FALSE