Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (53)
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short Term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long Term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
auditory sensory memory, perfect but brief memory to recall sounds within recent timeframe.
visual sensory memory, perfect but brief memory to recall images when seen within a recent timeframe.
first studied sensory memory using iconic memory, flashed letters infront of people and demonstrated that our visual memory holds a great deal of info. very briefly, 1/2 a second
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
Situation in which information learned more recently hinders the recall of information learned previously
situation in which previously learned information hinders the recall of information learned more recently
a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
memory of specific personal events and situations (episodes) tagged with information about time
memory for skills, including perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills required to complete tasks
very detailed memory of an arousing, surprising, or emotional situation
newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incomine auditory and visual-spatial information
recall that is hypothesized to work by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory during recall
Loss of memory that occurs as a result of physical or psychological trauma
(linguistics) one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
studies of the formation of basic linguistic units
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
single-word phrases used early in language development to convey an entire thought
occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to
The kind of verbal utterances in which words are left out, but the meaning is usually clear.
distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original
language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
study of understanding how language develops (Chomsky)- people transform their thoughts into sentenes that follow grammatical rules
particular words and phrases used to make up a sentence
an abstract representation of the underlying meanings of a given sentence
Langauge acquisition Device
hypothetical organ in the brain in which nativists believe knowledge of syntax resides
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
Benjamen Lee Whorf
Whorf is widely known for his ideas about linguistic relativity, the hypothesis that language influences thought. An important theme in many of his publications, he has been credited as one of the fathers of this approach.
anthropologist and linguist of Native Americans. Talked about importance of analyzing vocabulary in order to learn about physical and social environment of people.
A theory that states that language influences our thinking but doesn't determine it. Thus, if we don't have a word for something in our language, this theory predicts it will be difficult, but not impossible, to think about it or notice it.
A measure of how well a category member represents that category
A concept that makes important distinctions between different categories
A concept that refers to collections of basic-level concepts
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions
thinking that brings together information focussed on solving a problem (especially solving problems that have a single correct solution)
Mental shortcuts that allow individuals to make decisions without a great deal of information
• Individuals use cues to help them make decisions without a great deal of information
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
grasping the inner nature of things intuitively
Gestalt psychologist that first demonstrated insight through his chimpanzee experiments. He noticed the solution process wasn't slow, but sudden and reflective.
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; and impediment to problem solving
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
formulation of the plans and important details
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
the capacity to use information and/or abilities in a new and original way
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Sets with similar terms
Myers AP Psychology Unit 7 vocab
Psychology Unit 7 Vocabulary
AP Psych Unit 7 Memory and Cognition
Unit #7 Vocab