matter

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Terms in this set (...)

atom
the smallest unit of an element that has all the chemical properties of that element
pure substance
a type of matter which has specific physical and chemical properties by which it can always be identified; can contain only kind of element, or one kind of compound
element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions and that is made up of only one type of atom
mixture
a combination of two or more substances that do not combine chemically
solid
the state of matter that has a defined shape and volume with molecules that are closely packed and vibrate in place
liquid
a state of matter with a defined volume but no defined shape and whose molecules roll past each other
gas
a state of matter without any defined volume or shape in which atoms or molecules move about freely
plasma
A gas-like state of matter in which most of the particles are charged ions.
phase of matter
the physical forms in which matter exists, as determined by the average kinetic energy of the atoms involved; the most common phases of matter are solid, liquid, gas and plasma; also called state of matter;
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
chemical property
a characteristic of a substance that is measurable or observable during a chemical reaction; includes pH, heat of combustion, reactivity, etc.
chemical change
a process in which one or more reactants are changed into one or more different products. A chemical change occurs whenever compounds are formed or decomposed. During a chemical change, there is a rearrangement of atoms that makes or breaks chemical bonds
physical change
a change in only the appearance of matter, usually from one phase of matter to another, that does not affect the chemical composition of the substance. Matter can change from liquid to solid (freezing or solidification); from liquid to gas (evaporation);
compound
a pure substance that is formed when two or more different elements combine; can usually be separated into component elements by chemical reaction
heterogenous mixture
made up of two or more distinct components; usually refers to a mixture in which individual substances are distinct
physical property
a characteristic that can be observed (intensive), such as texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling point, density, or measured (extensive) such as mass, length, volume, that is used to describe matter and can be observed or measured without changing its composition
boiling point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure of the surrounding environment; . at this temperature, the liquid becomes a gas
melting point
the temperature at which matter changes from solid to liquid state
distillation
A process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points
filtration
A process that separates materials based on the size of their particles.
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two substances that appear as only one state of matter
suspension
a heterogeneous mixture in which fine particles are suspended, not dissolved, in a liquid or gas where they are supported by buoyancy
colloid
a type of heterogeneous mixture in which particles of moderate size are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas medium

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