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48 terms

ch. 7 chemistry vocab

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an ion that has a negative charge
anion
an ion with a positive charge
cation
the force that holds two atoms together; may form by the attraction of a positive ion for a negative ion or by sharing electrons
chemical bond
a three dimensional geometric arrangement of particles in which each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions and each negative ion is surrounded by positive ions; vary in shape due to sizes and relative numbers of the ions bonded
crystal lattice
an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current
electrolyte
the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound
ionic bond
compounds that contain ionic bonds
ionic compound
the energy required to separate one mole of the ions of an ionic compound, which is directly related to the size of the ions bonded and is also affected by the charge of the ions
lattice energy
the simplest ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound
formula unit
an ion formed from only one atom
monatomic ion
the positive or negative charge of a monatomic ion
oxidation number
a polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms
oxyanion
an ion made up of two or more atoms bonded together that acts as a single unit with a net charge
polyatomic ion
a mixture of elements that has metallic properties; most commonly forms when the elements are either similar in size or the atoms of one element are much smaller than the atoms of the other
alloy
the electrons involved in metallic bonding that are free to move easily from one atom to the next throughout the metal and are not attached to a particular ion
delocalized electron
proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a sea of electrons and can explain properties of metallic solids such as malleability, conduction, and ductility
electron sea model
the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons
metallic bond
what is a chemical bond? the attraction between....
a positive and negative ion
what forms the chemical bonds?
valence electrons
cations form when:
an electron is lost
anions form when:
electrons are gained
to name an anion, change the ending to ___
ide
groups 1-3 are ____
cations
groups 5-7 are
anions
all other ionic compounds aside from oxides are ___
salts
describe a binary ionic compound:
2 elements, 1st is a metal, 2nd is a nonmetal
strength of bond is determined by.....
melting point, boiling point, and hardness
melting and boiling points of ionic compounds:
high
what is one characteristic of an electrolyte?
can conduct electricity
energy is absorbed
endothermic
energy is released
exothermic
ionic bonds are usually endo or exothermic?
exo
in an ionic bond, ______ determines what will break the bond
lattice energy
smallest particle of an element
atom
how many elements do ternary ionic compounds have?
more than 2 - one cation and a polyatomic ion (polyatomic ions have more than one atom)
only positive polyatomic ion
ammonium
nearly all the polyatomic ions end in ___
ate or ite
exceptions of ending in ate or ite in polyatomic ions:
hydroxide, cyanide, and peroxide
oxyanion with more oxygen ends in ____
ate
oxyanion with less oxygen ends in ___
ite
naming ionic compounds: name ____ first
positive ion
metal atoms close together and overlap, forming a _____
electron sea model
in a metallic bond, electrons are called _____
delocalized electrons
in a metallic bond, bc each outer electron can move, each atom is a ____
cation
metallic bonds are held together by the attraction of the ____ and the ____
positive nuclei; delocalized electrons
charge sequence on the periodic table:
1+ 2+ 3+ skip 3- 2- 1- skip
possible chages of copper
1+ and 2+
possible charges of iron
2+ and 3+