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33 terms

4th Six Weeks Vocabulary

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Adage
a familiar proverb or wise saying
Antecedent
a word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers
Aphorism
a concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
Apostrophe
a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction
Balanced sentence
a sentence in which words, phrases, or clauses are set off against each other to emphasize a contrast
Bathos
insincere or overly sentimental quality of writing/speech intended to evoke pity
Chiasmus
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed ("Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary.")
Cumulative sentence
a sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (main clause is at the beginning)
Deductive reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
Didactic
having the primary purpose of teaching or instructing
Epigram
a brief, pithy, and often paradoxical saying
Epigraph
a saying or statement on the title page of a work, or used as a heading for a chapter or other section of a work
Homily
a sermon, or a moralistic lecture
Inductive reasoning
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
Literary license
deviating from normal rules or methods in order to achiever a certain effect (intentional sentence fragments, for example).
Litotes
a type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite (describing a particularly horrific scene by saying, "It was not a pretty picture.")
Malapropism
the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar ("The doctor wrote a subscription.")
Maxim
a concise statement, often offering advice; an adage
Parenthetical
a comment that interrupts the immediate subject, often to qualify or explain
Pedantic
characterized by an excessive display of learning or scholarship
Romantic
a term describing a character or literary work that reflects the characteristics of Romanticism, the literary movement beginning in the late 18th century that stressed emotion, imagination, and individualism
Solecism
nonstandard grammatical usage; a violation of grammatical rules
Syllepsis
a construction in which one word is used in two different senses ("After he threw the ball, he threw a fit.")
Synedoche
using one part of an object to represent the entire object (for example, referring to a car simply as "wheels")
Synesthesia
describing one kind of sensation in terms of another ("a loud color", "a sweet sound")
Vernacular
the everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage
Dissonance
harsh, inharmonious, or discordant sounds
Elegy
a formal poem presenting a meditation on death or another solemn theme
Frame device
a story within a story. An example is Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, in which the primary tales are told within the "frame story" of the pilgrimage to Canterbury
Metonymy
substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it ("The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war/fighting].")
Philippic
a strong verbal denunciation. The term comes from the orations of Demosthenes against Philip of Macedonia in the fourth century.
Surrealism
an artistic movement emphasizing the imagination and characterized by incongruous juxtapositions and lack of conscious control
Trilogy
a work in three parts, each of which is a complete work in itself