Terms in this set (53)
Approaches to political analysis
a) politics of modernization that gave rise to political development theory, then to revised versions of that approach that stressed the continuing role of tradition and the need for strong government, respectively.
b)the more Marxist-inspired approach that gave rise to dependency theory and subsequently to neo-Marxist analysis that focused on the relative autonomy of the state.
The more updated version of political analysis! emphasizes global economic integration (that was accelerated by increased communications and the end of the cold war) and its cultural and political ramifications. Incorporates both elements of modernization and dependency theory.
Modernization/political development theory
Emerged in the US in the 1905's; operated from a mainstream, liberal, or (to its left critics) pro-capitalist perspective
-born out of the second world war, the united states and the soviet union looked to annex post-colonial countries. US social scientists were encouraged to study the people
-ill-equipped, not at all comparative
-used modernization in the West as a comparison
-criticized by revisionists for simplifying and underestimating the role of tradition, and by advocates of political order for excessive optimism.
Dependency theory/Marxist-inspired theory
The modernization-opposed and Marxist-inspired theory
-Criticized for ignoring former colonies' continuing economic and thus political dependence
The problem with globalization
It undermines the premise of distinct developing world. For this, the theory is thought to be in crisis.
post-colonial regions of Africa, Latin-America, the Caribbean, Asia, and the Middle East. Very tricky term
Autonomy of politics
Studying politics in developing countries means investigating both central government processes and power relations in society
influential to political development theory
-developed structural-functional approach to comparing politics in different countries, and as a basis for his concept of political development, distinguished a series of political functions and then examined their relationship with structures/institutions
Four Input functions: political socialization (instilling attitudes towards the political system); political recruitment; and political demands
Three Output functions: rule-making; rule implementation; rule adjudication; and a more pervasive function of political communication
Identified five political systems (extractive, regulative, distributive, symbolic, and responsive) that develop and become more complex as the nation develops.
-coined "state (with a focus on state structures)/nation-building(with a focus on cultural integration)
centered on its oversimplified notions of tradition, modernity, and their interrelationship. Suggested that aspects of political modernization could positively invigorate traditions and that these elements would invariably influence in some measure the form and pace of political change
Patrimonialism or neo-patrimonialism
Insight on the realities of patronage and clientelism studied by Max Weber
Thought political development theory was too optimistic and unrealistic. Wanted to talk about political decay. criticized the notion that economic growth could lead to social change conductive to liberal democracy. Argued that economic growth from low initial levels could be profoundly destabilizing, generating excessive pressures on fragile political institutions.
Marxist perspective and inspired approaches
Opposed the politics of modernization and stressed the role of economic production and/or exchange AND the social class relationships embedded in them
-believed political development theory completely neglected the international context and implied assumption that politics in developing countries were dictated purely by domestics
Gunder Frank and Wallerstein
Frank: leading dependency theory analyst. Argued that the only way a developing country could become independent was by completely cutting off ties with the metropolis
Wallerstein: less extreme, acknowledged that semi-tie between developing state and metropolis were also beneficial (as seen in East Asia)
Frank and the developing world
believed REVOLUTION would break the tie and vicious cycle. Both Frank and Wallerstein barely acknowledged the struggles of the developing world, mostly the struggle between politics and economics in the developed world
sought to analyze the developing world keeping in mind that socialist revolutions had occurred and the peasant class needed to be acknowledged.
Modernization suseptible to change due to developing nations taking on new economic trades (oil-producing gulfs) and newly industrialized countries (NICs)
-Has many different forms and gives and takes valuable points from modernization theory and marxist-inspired theory
-focuses on accelerated communication and economic integration that transcends national borders and increases incorporates all parts of the world into a single system
-Economics is very important and the most focused on aspect.
-Wishes to increase cultural awareness and interaction across national boundaries. Encouraged by internet and mass media (downfall: Turkish soap operas in Lebanon)
Orientalism: western scholars study Asian and Middle Eastern societies in imperial times. Seen as Other and exotic; this was revived around 9/11 to help justify US actions
-inspired POST-COLONIAL STUDIES, inspiring india to re-write its history from the standpoint of the oppressed
questioned the epidemiological basis and claims of all of the great theoretical; approaches like liberalism, Marxism, and modernization.
Countries in Asia, Africa, Middle East & Latin America
Comprises 2/3rd of the world's population
Problems the developing world faces
*Economic disparity between social classes
*The difference in levels of industrialization between this segment of the world and the Western economies
*Financial problems and foreign debt
*National security risks - insurgencies, civil wars, state failure or decay
*Diversity in political, social and economic systems (different viewpoints conflicting)
*Domestic politicians/politics too corrupt
*Impact of transnational politics and global economy
the term "third world"
Third World - Less in vogue as it was used to identify countries that
tried to resist aligning
with the capitalist (First) and communist blocs (Second) during the Cold War
rising powers Brazil, Russia, India, China & South Africa
Classification Scheme During the Cold War
First World -
of Europe and North America and Australia, Japan and New Zealand
Second World -
in Eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America
Third World - Members of the
Are developing countries permanently impoverished?
-No! The boundaries of the developing world can change
-countries can change their status from lower class to middle income over time!
i.e. China was considered a developing country for many years, especially after the crash of its stock market but now projects global influence! Same with Korea, Japan, India.
Can global superpowers become developing countries?
Yes, this is very possible. Over time, a country that was seemingly stable can become unstable and low income over time.
i.e. Somalia, Zimbabwe
What causes developing countries to be so poor?
Path dependence- a term referring to a country's political decisions. Whatever is laid down in the past creates a clear and present path for the country to follow, inevitably influencing the future. It is hard to steer away from the path that has already been set.
-Poverty is so deeply imprinted on the country
-Wealth gap so extreme during the colonial period
-Nature of government institution: how they're designed and operated
What is development?
-Dominant view: Washington consensus, articulated by Bretten Woods Institution and Western powers led by the US
-A common set of assumptions about economic policy making
-The belief that expanding private ownership of enterprise is beneficial to society
-Liberalization of financials and trade
-Reduction in social expenditure by the state -
-Efforts to reduce national debt and foreign deficit are heavily encouraged
-Overall improvement of governance- stronger "state organs"
Impact of Globalization
-It creates clear winners and losers within society (those who work hard prosper, etc.)
-Government has autonomy in financial policy making under stress
-scrutiny of international agencies and transnational social movements - e.g. environment, human rights
Theoretical Approaches: Modernization(1st)
Expands on liberalism, focus on growth
Theoretical Approaches: Dependence/Marxist(2nd)
Variants on Marxism, focused on inequality between nations
-Extremists believed the inequality between nations is caused by the exploitation of the developing countries. Believe developing nations should highly avoid developed superpowers.
Theoretical Approaches: Globalization(3rd)
Elements of both Modernization and Marxism, focused on the division and inequality between developed and undeveloped world
Theoretical Approaches: Critical(3rd)
Feminism: IR is male dominated, while women's issues should be the main focus of their study
Subaltern: Themes based; theorists can't empathize with the poorer, less educated classes they're studying. They are at a disadvantage due to their elite mindset
-Dominates the US and European academics and policy circles as well as the way academics think
-Behavioral Revolution of the 1960s:
(a) empiricism: the theory that all societies come to the conclusion that a certain way of doing things is no longer acceptable. Leave past traditions behind and make room for newer improvements.
(b) data as a guide to policy: if progressive data is collected, human kind can be improved!
-Western history - transformation from feudal to industrial & information age - guide to the developing world
The Three Theories
These are not geological concepts, they are economic. Doesn't consider whether or not regions have proper tools to succeed and advance in society.
1. Modernization (summary)
-Political development/structural-functionalist theory by G. Almond
-Stages of growth - W. W. Rostow
-Continues to influence the worldview of policy makers and academics till today
-Conceptual model of a political system and its functions
-Interaction of political functions with specific institutions
*Political Socialization (family, school)
*Political Recruitment (Parties)
*Interest Articulation (Interest Groups) (how are interests expressed in society? Civic associations-clubs, sharing specific interests in groups, etc).
*Interest Aggregation (Parties)
*Rule adjudication (Judicial)
Responsibilities of the Political System
-Capabilities to be acquired by the political system
-Problems to be addressed by the political system
*State-building - institutions
*Nation-building - coherent identity as citizens/nationals
*Participation - access to decision-making
*Redistribution - welfare
Rostow's Five Stages of Growth (Modernization)
A conceptual model of economic development of nations
A modernization theorist who idealized Western liberal and economic models.
-Preconditions for Take-off
-Drive to Maturity
-Age of High Mass-Consumption
Stage 1: Traditional Society
-Ceiling on productive capacity in agriculture and manufacturing (ability to grow food)
-Scientific knowledge still in its infancy (knowledge about the world-->ultimately leads to discoveries and inventions)
-Agrarian societies-hierarchical (landowners have more power than workers; social structure rigid due to assignment of certain task, can't just decide to leave job and become landowner one day)
-Political power tended to be dispersed (no central ruler)
-Difficult to create and maintain centralized political systems(mainly due to lack of transportation and lack of economic basis to provide central power/govt)
Stage 2: Preconditions for Take-Off
Building "social overhead capital" railways, roads, ports, and infrastructure. Enables shift from agrarian society to more trade and manufacturing societies.
Government must play active role*
- Raw materials--> finished goods--> market to sell them
-Government must invest in infrastructure projects because they take the lead in building these facilities
*Self-sufficiency must be replaced by focus towards a national and international level
*Birth rates go down due to the lower demand for unskilled labor
*Concentration of wealth becomes necessary to build public institutions
*Landowning elite must be replaced by an entrepreneurial elite
*Reorientation of the society's attitude toward working institutions and procedures
Formation of political coalitions that will support a strong
modern national government*
-to organize a nation so that unified commercial markets develop
-maintain a tax and fiscal system to allocate resources for modern uses
-tariffs, education and health policy should be oriented for modernizing the economy
Stage 2.5: The Take-Off
-Can begin due to "sharp stimulus" that will spike up the growth rate. Spike can be caused by political revolution, technological change (spread of computers), etc.
-Productive investment should exceed 10% of national income.
Country will not take off if it's below 10%
-Strong manufacturing base with specialization in one or more sectors of the economy
-political, social, and institutional framework that will harness the expansionist impulses of modern sectors of the economy
-Ability to mobilize domestic capital for productive
uses (capital directed into sectors where mass
production can take place)
Stage 3: Drive to Maturity
-Differentiation of the industrial process; splitting industry up into subparts, every unit has separate special task
-New growth sectors emerge that supplant the older sectors as the lead engines of growth
-An economy attains maturity when it has developed the ability to efficiently acquire and deploy most of its resources for productive purposes
Stage 4: Age of Mass Consumption
-Shift towards mass production of durable goods and services
-Significance segment of society gains access to consumption of material goods and services that transcends basic food, shelter, and clothing
-Allocation of resources for redistribution of national income
-rise of welfare state
Stage 5: Beyond Consumption
-Rediscover family/friend bonds
-Key: remember this book is from 1960's
Criticism of Modernization
-Ignored or assumed that modernity would dilute role of identity- religion, caste, or ethnicity
-Wrong to assume that rapid economic growth will create momentum for liberal democracy
-Democratization is complex! More association with
cultural identity, not economy
-Study how traditional political relations between the following persist even as new "modern" institutions are introduced in society:
-patrons-who wield power
-clients- and those who are dependent on the
-What is the "strength" of the state institutions to maintain social orders.
-Government's capacity to enforce regulations and rules in the state
-Structure of the entire global economy (developing countries must be studied as a part of the global market, not individually)
-Dependence of developing world ("periphery") on the developed world ("core" or "metropole")
-Development of the core at the expense of the periphery- main cause of underdevelopment of the periphery
-Formal, political independence is irrelevant for countries in the periphery
-Core countries continued to exploit the periphery
-1980's debt crisis and IMF/World Bank structural adjustment policies gave credence to this theory
Marxist Policy Recommendations
-self-reliance and cutting off economic ties to the core
-revolution from below against local agents of metropolitan capital interests
*Domestic social structure of developing countries
-Concept of post-colonial state
-Relative autonomy of the state from class interests
-Departure from traditional Marxism which equated the state with bourgeois interests
-State acts as an instrument of mediation among different ruling classes
*Legacy of the colonial state apparatus
*Emerge out of the failure of Modernization and Marxist approaches to explain new developments
-Newly industrializing countries
-Information and communication revolution
-Global supply chain production
-Aggressive propagation of neoliberalism after the fall of the Soviet bloc
3. Globalization continued
*Issues that transcend national boundaries
-environment (climate change)
-International human rights regime
-NGOs and transnational social movements
*Policy autonomy of the state has been reduced
*Technology drives political and social change
*Developing world should be thought of as a sociological rather than a geographical category
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