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Barron's Human Geography Unit 3
Unit 3 for Mr. Snyder's MoWoHuge AP Class. Thanks to Trevor Eisenberg for his help and naturally being a beast. Sam Nemiroff helped too. (but Trevor helped more :)
Terms in this set (75)
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
Ones belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect. You can "identify with" a group or "identify against" a group (what you are, or what you are not).
migrants who have moved away but renew or maintain their connections with their homeland (facilitated by modern technology - newspapers, newsletters, blogs,...).
process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.
The visible imprint of human activity on the landscape.
a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communication.
language diffusion (and hearths)
movement of languages through migration (for hearths see the original locations of the major language families).
group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin (e.g., Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan,...)
group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics (e.g., Germanic, Romance, Slavic, ...)
when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language, and continued isolation causes new languages to be formed.
collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages.
Language replacement (extinction)
obliteration of an entire culture through war, disease, assimilation, or any combination of the three.
cultures without any written language (most of the more than 6,000 world language are unwritten).
variant of a language that a country's intellectual or politically elite seek to promote as the norm (e.g., King's English)
local or regional characteristics of a language. More than just a different accent, _____ have distinctive grammar and vocabulary (e.g., Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese).
geographical boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.
slight change in a word across related languages from the present backward toward its origin.
technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that preceded it.
hypothesized ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages.
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
theory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the speakers' overpowering of earlier inhabitants through warfare and technology (e.g., fighting on horseback). Its hearth is around modern day Ukraine.
theory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the innovation of agriculture (being more efficient than hunting and gathering). Its hearth is around modern day Anatolia (in Turkey).
Modern linguistic mosaic
literacy, technology, political organization
lit tech po (literacy, technology, political organization)
three areas of innovation have shaped the location and nature of language in the modern world ... _______, _______(e.g., Gutenberg)
process whereby the number of Hispanics is increasing in the U.S.; currently the largest minority group in the U.S.
a constructed international language developed in the late 1880s and promoted after World War I to be a universal second language (lingua franca) to foster peace. Although thousands still speak this language, it is not widespread (mostly resembles an Indo-European language, and therefore, not a global tongue).
a common language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce
when parts of two or more languages are combined in simplified structure and vocabulary.
Creole (and creolization)
a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue of a region and/or people.
country in which only one language is primarily spoken (e.g., Portugal, Japan, Venezuela, Poland, ...).
country in which two or more languages are spoken.
in multilingual states the language selected, often by the elite, to promote internal cohesion.
the study of place names. (e.g., San Diego or San Francisco indicate they were established by Spain due to their Spanish and Catholic connotations).
the faithfulness to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual nature. This is important to HG because man wars have been fought over it.
(global, proselytic) a religion in which the followers attempt to appeal to all people, and actively seek concerts wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this - they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. .
is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. It's important to HG because it's the most popular religion in the world.
It means the submission to the will of god. Its a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a key religious figure. It is the second largest religion in the world. This is important to HG because it has impacted the world greatly, especially boundaries (e.g., North Africa, "Middle East").
The third of the world's major universalizing religions. It has 365 million adherents especially in China and Southeast Asia. It is important because a large percent of the earth's population follow ______ beliefs.
A religion with a rather concentrated distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location where its adherents are located; most religions start off as a(n) ___________.
Created in India, approximately one billion followers. Unlike other religions, heaven isn't always the ultimate goal in life. Third largest in world behind Christianity and Islam. Talk about Karma (what goes around comes around.) It is important to HG because such a large number of people follow the religion and it's unlike any other one.
religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life.
It is the religion of ancient Hebrews, said to be one of the first monotheistic faiths. This is important to HG because many other religions have been based off it.
is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India and locate primarily between India and Pakistan today. The principal belief in this religion is faith in Vāhigurū.
a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is practiced around the world, but is concentrated in Utah.
said to be the way of god. It is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion, combining elements of Buddhism and local religions (a syncretic religion). It involves the worship of kami (a god). It was very popular prior to WWII, but has lost much of its dominance and importance in Japanese culture.
Belief that inanimate objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and life. Common in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, Native American religions are fundamentally __________, and even Shintoism is highly __________.
This is the range of traditional beliefs and practices that claim the ability to cure, heal, and cause pain to people.
Developed by earlier Chinese man Confucius, it's a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought. This is important to HG because it has affected Chinese Civilizations tremendously.
religion founded by Lao-Tsu and based on his book titles "Book of the Way"; focused on proper political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature.
literally means "wind water"; Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, cities. Structures and objects are positioned in a way (often in line with the compass lines) to channel flows of energy in favorable ways. It is not an official religion.
separate religions that combine into a new religion; often borrow from the past and the present.
This is the belief that humans should be based on facts and not religious beliefs. This is important to HG because this has caused conflicts in a lot of different places including politics.
_________ is the belief in one god and ________is the belief in many gods. This affects HG because many religions spread throughout the world fall under these two categories.
place or space people infuse with religious meaning; Ex) Jerusalem - Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre), Judaism (Western Wall), and Islam (Dome of the Rock); Catholicism - The Vatican; Islam - Mecca, Medina; Hinduism - Varanasi & The Ganges River; ...
the boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Christianity, Muslim, and Buddhism. For case studies ... Nigeria, Sudan, Kashmir, Armenia/Azerbaijan, and Yugoslavia ... (see the religion reading guide)
describes the boundaries within a major religion (e.g., Belgium; Switzerland; Northern Ireland is mostly Protestant, whereas the rest of Ireland is mostly Catholic)
literal interpretation and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (usually religious; many can take these beliefs to an extreme and even violent level
means "struggle" and is a religious duty of Muslims; some can take their "_____" to an extreme and violent level often against a perceived threat to their way of life or culture (e.g., 9/11 terrorists; the Mujajideen (a person involved in jihad) who fought against the USSR in Afghanistan from 1979-1989).
cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, customs, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities
refers to people who see themselves as part of a community who work to preserve their traits and customs to be unique and distinguish themselves from others
(mass culture) cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies
categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics; based on the idea that some characteristics are more important than others (e.g., skin color over height). Skin pigmentation is caused by melanin, a chemical in the skin.
affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture; many acts of hostility and wars (ethnic conflict) are fought over ethnonational claims to territory
Ethnic island (enclave/neighborhood)
an area typically situated apart from a more homogenous region (e.g., metropolitan city) and comprised of a local culture that may practice their own culture
situation in which ethnic or racial groups are separated into different classes; this is done against their will (e.g., US before the 1960 Civil Rights Act (Jim Crow Laws); South Africa before 1994 (Apartheid); also the Hindu caste system).
process by which people group and live with people more like themselves in terms of culture, ethnicity, or race; this is done by choice, free of outside intervention.
the persecution through imprisonment, expulsion, or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity (e.g., Nazi campaign from the 1930s through WWII; Yugoslavia from 1991-1999, Rwanda in 1994; Sudan (janjaweed in Darfur) from 2003 to the present, ...).
a fear or dislike of foreigners or people significantly different from oneself.
gender refers to social differences between men and women (as opposed to biological differences); women outlive men in the vast majority of countries (exceptions are some states in West and Southern Africa due to the AIDS epidemic, and parts of South Asia due to cultural beliefs of male dominance)
the difference in life expectancy between MDCs and LDCs
areas or regions designed for men or women
practice of someone intentionally causing the death of an infant; occurs sometimes in peripheral and poor regions as a form of population control or as a sex-selective practice (e.g., the One-Child Policy of China has led to larger female infant mortality rates and abandonment due to the preference of male children).
sometimes due to arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the killing (or driving to suicide) of the bride by the groom or his family (numbers in India may vary between 2,000 to over 6,000 deaths a year (!) depending on the validity of reports).
Quality of Life
your personal satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with the cultural or intellectual conditions under which you live (as distinct from material comfort)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Barrons' Human Geography Unit 2
Barron's Human Geography Unit 1
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