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ESL Praxis Practice
for the 0361 Test
Terms in this set (55)
The way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning
The matching of a symbol with a phoneme. (matching a letter with a sound)
An abstract unit of speech sound that can distinguish words. Changing this within a word can produce another word.
When one phoneme is constantly switched with another in speech - i.e. shair for chair
A pair of words that differ by only a single sound and are recognized by speakers as different words. i.e. bat/cat or hare/dare
One of several similar speech sounds that belong to the same phoneme. Same phoneme that sounds different in different words, i.e. pin and spin, the phoneme 'p' is the same but sounds a bit different.
strong explosion of breath. Voiceless sounds of p, t, or k.
International Phonetic Alphabet, a system of phonetic notation.
Visual system of symbols of the sounds occurring in spoken language. Most common is a phonetic alphabet.
Describes the pronunciation of sounds when the larynx does not vibrate
Describes a sound in which the vocal cords vibrate.
Production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the noise. most common are n, m, or ing.
Formed by completely blocking air. (p, b)
Formed by constricting air flow through the vocal tract (f, v, th, z, s, sh, sion)
Sound is produced by stopping the air and then releasing it with friction (ch, j)
Smooth sound. r
Constriction of the passage way (w, y)
Morphemes are the smallest linguistic unit that has meaning. i.e. s, cat, pickle. Have a fixed spelling, helps students with words they don't know.
Used alongside other morphemes, i.e. s in cats
Can stand alone. i.e. cat
Bound morphemes at the beginning or end of free morphemes (carry meaning). Some change the part of speech, others do not.
Knowing a word, its definition, synonyms, and extended meanings of the word. As well as knowing other words related to the word. Semantic cues help students understand the meaning of words in a particular sentence/context.
Words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings and different spellings. i.e. read/red, great/grate, seen/scene.
A phrase that means something different than the words imply if interpreted literally. Idioms are more cultural than set in a language. Idioms are one of the most difficult things to learn in the process of learning a new language.
Refers to the relationship between the grammatical components of language in use. The grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence, primarily concerned with structure or word order.
The belief that things like phonics and decoding can be learned while reading, that one can learn the parts by being immersed in the whole.
The 'in-between' or crossing over of two languages. Via this process of trial and error learners slowly succeed in getting closer to using the target language as a native speaker would.
Happens when the rules from L1 are applied to the L2 - both syntactic and semantic errors.
Different cultures maintain different standards of proximity/personal space.
When a speaker works around an unknown word (think catchphrase - describing scissors as 'the things that are used to cut paper')
This occurs when new language learners apply the rules from their native language to the language being learned.
vowel sound becomes nasalized
study of the structure of words and word formation
verbs that take direct/indirect objects. ex: "called"
verbs that can't take objects. ex: forms of "to be"...aka "linking verbs"
vocabulary of the language. ex: "cool" versatile/changeable words.
LITERAL meaning of words and ideas
IMPLIED meaning of words and ideas
the ability of speakers to combine sounds into words, words into sentences and larger units cohesively to achieve oral or written communication
the role of context in the production and interpretation of communication. ALSO: the hidden rules of communication shared by native speakers.
the use of linguistic features beyond the phoneme level (tone, intonation, and word stress)
language feature where speakers use different levels of pitch at the syllable level to change the meaning of words
how pitch at the sentence and word levels can convey meaning or alter the emphasis of the communication
changes meaning and syntactic classification of small number of words (homographs)
words with identical spelling but alternative pronunciation. ex: ADDress (noun); adDRESS (verb)
what you do in stressing the difference between the two words of a homograph
words with high semantic value. (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
words required to comply with grammatical conventions: articles, prepositions, auxiliaries, conjunctions, pronouns
repeating and modeling words that student produces, checking for understanding by prompting with questions
the idea that sounds are represented by letters and letter sequences
sound-symbol correspondence of the language.
words that have common spelling patterns in English. (ex: out, shout, bout, etc.)
ways to conceptualize how learning takes place
techniques to improve understanding; increase retention of information; and refine the ability to apply new information
techniques in which students learn from each other or by interacting in groups.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ESL Praxis Study Guide
Praxis ESL Concepts
ESL Praxis 0360
ESL Praxis Practice
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