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Occupations, Purposeful Activities and Preparatory Activities
Terms in this set (96)
What is the basic tool of occupational therapy practice ?
What is Active Occupation ?
those activities in which people engage as part of their life's roles.
What separates OT from other disciplines ?
OT helps patients regain their skills with active occupations as therapy
What are three major aspects of OT knowledge base?
What is egocentric realm ?
the patient's mind and body
What OT knowledge based is used when considering a patient's time and space ?
When the OT is considering a patient's society and cultural background or roles; what knowledge base is in use?
What adjunctive therapy is not considered an entry level skill, that some OTs and OTAs has become increasingly skilled in ?
Physical Agent Modalities
What is purposeful activity?
"goal directed" behaviors or tasks that comprise occupations
In order for an activity to be considered purposeful it must meet these certain criteria.
Individual must be an active, voluntary participant.
must be directed toward a goal that the individual consider meaningful.
has both inherent and therapeutic goals.
What are 7 reasons OT use purposeful activities?
Purposeful activities are used or adapted for use to meet one or more of the following therapeutic objectives, be able to name at least 4.
1.develop or maintain strength,endurance, work tolerance, ROM, and coordination.
2.practice and use voluntary and automatic movements in goal directed tasks.
3.provide for purposeful use of and general exercise to affected parts.
4.explore vocational potential or training in work skills.
5.improve sensation, perception, and cognition.
6.improve socialization skills and enhance emotional growth and development.
7.increase independence in occupational role performance.
Why is activity valuable?
It maintains health in a healthy person and restores health after illness or disability
What happens when a person engage in relevant, meaningful, and purposeful activity?
change is possible and dysfunction is reversible
What concept was OT founded upon?
that human beings have an occupational nature and humans naturally engage in activity
True or False
Everything we do is an occupation.
What does an OT assessment establish?
the patient's occupational goals and needs
True or False ?
OT treats every patient with a one size fits all approach when considering therapy.
Therapy must be individualized for each patient with evaluative tools
What are some evaluative tools OT may use to learn patients interests and/or needs ?
Activities selected for therapeutic purposes should be:
meaningful to the patient,
matched to individual needs in relation to social roles,
capable of eliciting the mental or physical participation of the patient,
designed to prevent or reverse dysfunction and develop skills to enhance performance in life roles,
related to patient's interests,
adaptable, gradable, and age appropriate,
selected through knowledge and professional judgment,
selected in cooperation with the patient.
What must the patient be able to do in order for adaptations to be effective ?
In order for adaptations to be effective a patient must be comfortable
What does an activities usefulness often rely on ?
adaptation to the special needs of the patient or the environment
Pacing and modifying the activity to obtain the patients maximal performance would be considered?
Changing the position or environment of the patient would be considered?
What are some reasons activities are graded?
to increase strength, ROM, endurance, tolerance, coordination, and perceptional, cognitive, and social skills.
True or False ?
Not every activity can be graded but every activity can be adapted.
Every activity should be gradable and adaptable.
Considering activities that are used for physical restoration, what 3 characteristics must they meet?
1. Activities should provide action rather than merely the position of involved joints and muscles.
2. Activities should provide repetition of motion.
3. Activities should allow for one or more kinds of grading such as resistance, range, coordination, endurance, or complexity.
What type of exercises are most used for purposeful activity?
active and resistive exercises
What are activities that are considered non-purposeful and generally do not have an inherent goal but may engage the patient mentally and physically?
simulated or enabling activity
Why do OTs use simulated or enabling activities?
to practice specific motor skills.
to train in perceptual and cognitive skills.
to practice motor and process skills necessary for function in the home and community.
What are some examples of simulated or enabling activities ?
standing boards, and
What can be used as a preliminary step toward preparing the patient for purposeful and occupational performance?
what is the most effective use of therapeutic exercise
orthopedic disorders and lower motor neuron disorders that produce weakness and flaccidity.
What are two Therapeutic Approaches
Biomechanical Approach, and
The approach that is most frequently used in OT, Likely to be used in the treatment of lower motor neuron disorders (i.e. GB, muscular dystrophy) and orthopedic dysfunctions.
What are the goals of the Biomechanical Approach ?
improvements in strength, range of motion, and muscle endurance
Likely to be used for upper motor neuron disorders
What are the goals of the Sensorimotor Approach?
improvements in balance, posture, muscle tone, and the facilitation or inhibition of abnormal reflexes and movement
What is the general purpose for using therapeutic exercise with therapeutic activity?
to develop awareness of normal movement patterns and improve voluntary automatic movement responses,
to develop strength and endurance in patterns of movement that are acceptable and necessary and don't
to improve coordination, regardless of strength,
increase the power of specific isolated muscles or muscle groups,
aid in overcoming ROM deficits,
increase in strength of muscles that will power hand splints, mobile arm support, and other devices,
increase work tolerance and physical endurance through increased strength,
prevent or eliminate contractures from developing.
What is most effective for orthopedic disorders and lower motor neuron disorders that produce weakness and flaccidity?
What are some contraindications of therapeutic exercise?
patients with poor general health, patients with
inflamed joints, and
who have had recent surgeries
What are some signs of fatigue
slowed performance, distraction, perspiration, increase in rate of respiration, performance of exercise pattern through a decreased ROM, and inability to complete the prescribed number of repetitions.
Name some exercises that are used to increase strength.
active-assisted, active, resistive isotonic, and isometric exercises.
What are strengthening programs generally based on ?
contracting the muscle against a large resistance for a few repetitions.
What is the clinical name for muscle endurance ?
What is the muscle's ability to work for prolonged periods and resist fatigue?
To increase strength patients are given
high-load, low repetition
To increase endurance patients are given
low-load, high repetition
Requires use of large muscle groups in sustained rhythmic aerobic exercise or activity often used in cardiac rehab programs
Physical conditioning and cardiovascular fitness
What exercises are used to maintain joint motion and flexibility
AROM and PROM
What is combined activity of many muscles into smooth patterns and sequences of motion ?
What involves conscious attention to guidance of an activity?
What is the difference between motor control an coordination?
Coordination is a sequence of motion while
Motor Control is the working of nerves and muscles together.
What are the three type of muscle contractions?
Isometric/ static contraction,
What muscle contraction involves no joint motion and the muscle length remains the same?
Isometric/ static contraction
What type of muscle contraction involves joint motion and muscle shortening?
What type of muscle contraction involves joint motion and the muscle remains lengthened ?
What are the 5 muscle roles ? Define each.
Agonist -prime movers ex. biceps brachii,
Synergist - helper ex. brachioradialis performs at task,
Antagonist - oppose ex. triceps brachii,
Stabilizer - balancer; assists the agonist to balance the force of contracting muscles,
Neutralizer - prevents unwanted movements; allows muscle to perform more than one movement; ex: flex/ext while also sup/pron
Name 5 exercise and activity classifications.
Isotonic Resistive Exercise,
Progressive Resistive Exercise,
Isotonic Active Exercise,
Active- Assisted Exercise,
Which exercise activity classification uses muscle contraction against a specific amount of weight to move the load through a certain ROM ?
Isotonic Resistive Exercise
Which exercise activity is based on the overload principle; where muscles perform more efficiently if given a warm-up period and must be taxed beyond usual daily activity to improve in performance and strength ?
(PRE) Progressive Resistive Exercise
Which exercise activity involves the use of muscle contractions and is an active exercise that is performed when the patient moves the joint through its available ROM against no outside resistance?
Isotonic Active Exercise
Which exercise activity involves the patient moving their joint through partial ROM and the therapist or mechanical device completes the range.
Active- Assisted Exercise
Which exercise involves no muscle contraction, this exercise is not used to increase strength, it's purpose is to maintain ROM, thereby preventing contractures, adhesion and deformity.
Name 4 other exercise activity classifications.
Isometric Exercise without Resistance, and
Isometric Exercise with Resistance.
Described when the therapist moves the joint through the available ROM and hold momentarily, applying gentle but firm force or stretch at the end of the ROM
Described by increasing joint ROM; patient uses force of the agonist muscle to increase the length of the antagonist muscle.
Used when a muscle or group of muscles is actively contracted and relaxed without producing motion of the joint that it ordinarily mobilizes. Purpose is to maintain muscle strength when active motion is not possible or is contraindicated.
Isometric Exercise without Resistance
What exercise would be used when muscle strength is graded 3+to 5
Isometric Exercise with Resistance
LOSS OF SENSATION
ABNOMRAL SENSATION SUCHA AS TINGLING
DECREASED DULL OR SENSATION (ANOTHER NAME IS HYPOSENSITIVITY
INCREASED TACTILE SENSITIVITY (ANOTHER NAME IS HYPRSENSITIVITY
COMPLETE LOSS OF PAIN SENSTATION
HYPALGESIA AKA HYPOALGESIA
DIMINSISHED PAIN SENSATION
AIMS TO CHANGE THE SENSORY RESPOSNE ITSELF AND RESTORE MORE NORMAL SENSORY FUNCTION
INVOLVES USING STRATEGIES FOR ADJUSTING AND ADAPTING TO SENSORY CHANGE OR LOSS
purpose is to promote recovery of dulled or absent sensation via appropriate sensory input.
examples of remedial treatment
light touch deep pressure vibration proprioceptors and weight - bearing
helps maximize safe performance in occupation by working around problems associated with sensory deficits
examples of compensatory treatment
skin inspection, using uninvolved or less involved, visual compensation
what can cause PNS
diabetes, carpal tunnel syndrome, spinal stenosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, lyme disease, HIV, Guillain-Barre
ota has a more direct role he or she explains the benefits of using the affected part as one way to help reduce hypersensitivity
Safety is the first and major forces of compensatory training for clients who lack protective sensation.
introduced after desensitization treatment ins completed. the program begins with teaching the client how to use sensation.
way to reduce edema would include:
elevation, contrast baths, massage compression, AROM
ways to increase include:
improve tissue elasticity, improve soft tissue mobility
sensory re-education, sensory desensitization
BTE weight well, theraband, grade resistance hand grips or theraputty
improving functioning in the areas of occupation
crafts games dexterity activities, BADL tasks, IADL tasks, work samples
What are some causes of acute hand injuries?
Work-related farm injuries
Disease (example arthritis, congenital anomalies)
What does the loss of a hand effect?
Mechanical tasks that the hand performs
All areas of occupation
There are two phases of recovering from a hand injury.
Healing - cellular level repair of wound
Restoration - remediation of the lost function (strength, dexterity, sensation, etc)
In regards to hand injury the primary role of the OT is
To instruct the patient in self management of condition
Age hand dominance, general media conditions, occupations, living situation, a vocational interests, patients goals for therapy
The initial assessment of an OT consists of
In the observation phase of OT
The patient is observed entering the clinic or office
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