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22 terms

Ch. 14 Evolution

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Evolution
all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time
Adaptation
an inherited characteristic that improves and organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular evronment
Natural Section
the process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring on average than do other individuals
Fossils
preserved remains or markings left by organisms that lived in the past
Fossil record
the collection of fossils recorded in rock layers over time
Extinct
species that no longer exist
homologous Structures
similar structures found in different organisms with a common ancestor
Vestigial Structures
homologous structures that have a major function in one species but not in a related species
Descent with Modification
populations change over time
Population
group of individuals of the same species
Variation
differences among members of the same species
Artificial Selection
selective breeding has resulted in many different types of domestic plants and animals, in a relatively short time
Population Genetics
changes in the frequency of various genes in the gene pool
Gene Pool
all of the genes of all of the individuals in a population
Microevolution
changes in the gene pool. Small changes over relatively short periods of time
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
populations that do not undergo change to their gene pools are not presently evolving
Antibiotics
drugs that kill or slow the growth of bacteria
Genetic Drift
changes in the frequencies of genes in a small population caused by chance
Bottleneck Effect
changes in the gene pool caused by a rapid reduction in population size. Reduces genetic variability
Founder Effect
changes that occur in a small population that populates a new environment
Gene Flow
addition of new genes to the gene pool by migration
Mutation
creation of new genes by changing DNA. Increases genetic variation