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Characteristic of Eudicots, a primary root that grows downward and initiates lateral roots.

Fibrous Roots

Structure characteristic of Monocots, originate from the stem.

Prop Roots

Characteristic of Monocots, serve as structural support.


Repeating module of one or more leaves, internodes, and axillary buds that constitutes a shoot.


Interval of stem between two nodes

Axillary Bud

Form in the angle where the leaf meets the stem. Can develop into a branch

Terminal Bud

End of a stem or branch


Arrangement of leaves along the stem


Thin, flat structure attached to the stem or stalk by a petiole.


Attaches a blade to the stem.

Middle Lamella

Thin layer between the walls of two daughter cells

Primary Cell Wall

Composed of bundled microfibrils of cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Pectins

Secondary Cell Wall

Provides mechanical support necessary for large stems, contains lignin instead of pectin


Strong carbon complex resistant to water and animal digestion


A cluster of undifferentiated cells that allow a plant to develop organs throughout its lifetime


The supporting structure to the embryo proper resulting from asymmetrical division


"Seed leave" formed by embryo in the heart stage

Epidermal cell

Typically has a small central vacuole or none at all. Can differentiate once cell division stops into stomata, trichomes, or root hairs.


Leaf hairs that provide protection from insects and solar radiation


Made of cutin, secreted by above-ground epidermal cells. Limits water loss, reflects solar radiation, and serves as a barrier against pathogens.

Primary Growth

lengthening of roots and shoots and the proliferation of new roots and shoots

Secondary Growth

Increase in girth typical of many gymnosperms and eudicots


Cell type that perpetuates the meristem, comparable to stem cells in animals.

Apical Meristem

Orchestrates primary growth, characterized by cell division followed by vertical elongation. Give rise to primary meristems

Lateral Meristem

Orchestrates secondary growth, includes Vascular Cambium and Cork Cambium

Root Cap

Protects growing end of the root as it pushes through the soil. Secretes slime as lubricant

Zone of Division

The root pushes downward into the soil in this zone

Zone of Elongation

Newly formed cells are elongated to push the root farther into the soil in this Zone

Zone of Maturation

Cells begin differentiating in this Zone

Vegetative Meristem

Apical meristem that produces leaves


Clade consisting of most angiosperms, characterized by a taproot and two cotyldons (e.g. cacti, daisies)


Angiosperms with a single embryonic leaf, characterized by parallel leaves, fibrous roots (e.g. grasses, onion, fern)

Quiescent Center

Apical meristem found directly behind the root cap dormant until the root becomes damaged

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