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Repeating module of one or more leaves, internodes, and axillary buds that constitutes a shoot.
Secondary Cell Wall
Provides mechanical support necessary for large stems, contains lignin instead of pectin
A cluster of undifferentiated cells that allow a plant to develop organs throughout its lifetime
Typically has a small central vacuole or none at all. Can differentiate once cell division stops into stomata, trichomes, or root hairs.
Made of cutin, secreted by above-ground epidermal cells. Limits water loss, reflects solar radiation, and serves as a barrier against pathogens.
Orchestrates primary growth, characterized by cell division followed by vertical elongation. Give rise to primary meristems
Protects growing end of the root as it pushes through the soil. Secretes slime as lubricant
Zone of Elongation
Newly formed cells are elongated to push the root farther into the soil in this Zone
Clade consisting of most angiosperms, characterized by a taproot and two cotyldons (e.g. cacti, daisies)
Angiosperms with a single embryonic leaf, characterized by parallel leaves, fibrous roots (e.g. grasses, onion, fern)
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