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33 terms

Plant Anatomy

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Taproot
Characteristic of Eudicots, a primary root that grows downward and initiates lateral roots.
Fibrous Roots
Structure characteristic of Monocots, originate from the stem.
Prop Roots
Characteristic of Monocots, serve as structural support.
Phytomer
Repeating module of one or more leaves, internodes, and axillary buds that constitutes a shoot.
Internode
Interval of stem between two nodes
Axillary Bud
Form in the angle where the leaf meets the stem. Can develop into a branch
Terminal Bud
End of a stem or branch
Phyllotaxy
Arrangement of leaves along the stem
Blade
Thin, flat structure attached to the stem or stalk by a petiole.
Petiole
Attaches a blade to the stem.
Middle Lamella
Thin layer between the walls of two daughter cells
Primary Cell Wall
Composed of bundled microfibrils of cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Pectins
Secondary Cell Wall
Provides mechanical support necessary for large stems, contains lignin instead of pectin
Lignin
Strong carbon complex resistant to water and animal digestion
Meristem
A cluster of undifferentiated cells that allow a plant to develop organs throughout its lifetime
Suspensor
The supporting structure to the embryo proper resulting from asymmetrical division
Cotyledon
"Seed leave" formed by embryo in the heart stage
Epidermal cell
Typically has a small central vacuole or none at all. Can differentiate once cell division stops into stomata, trichomes, or root hairs.
Trichome
Leaf hairs that provide protection from insects and solar radiation
Cuticle
Made of cutin, secreted by above-ground epidermal cells. Limits water loss, reflects solar radiation, and serves as a barrier against pathogens.
Primary Growth
lengthening of roots and shoots and the proliferation of new roots and shoots
Secondary Growth
Increase in girth typical of many gymnosperms and eudicots
Initial
Cell type that perpetuates the meristem, comparable to stem cells in animals.
Apical Meristem
Orchestrates primary growth, characterized by cell division followed by vertical elongation. Give rise to primary meristems
Lateral Meristem
Orchestrates secondary growth, includes Vascular Cambium and Cork Cambium
Root Cap
Protects growing end of the root as it pushes through the soil. Secretes slime as lubricant
Zone of Division
The root pushes downward into the soil in this zone
Zone of Elongation
Newly formed cells are elongated to push the root farther into the soil in this Zone
Zone of Maturation
Cells begin differentiating in this Zone
Vegetative Meristem
Apical meristem that produces leaves
Eudicot
Clade consisting of most angiosperms, characterized by a taproot and two cotyldons (e.g. cacti, daisies)
Monocot
Angiosperms with a single embryonic leaf, characterized by parallel leaves, fibrous roots (e.g. grasses, onion, fern)
Quiescent Center
Apical meristem found directly behind the root cap dormant until the root becomes damaged