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Characteristic of Eudicots, a primary root that grows downward and initiates lateral roots.
Structure characteristic of Monocots, originate from the stem.
Characteristic of Monocots, serve as structural support.
Repeating module of one or more leaves, internodes, and axillary buds that constitutes a shoot.
Interval of stem between two nodes
Form in the angle where the leaf meets the stem. Can develop into a branch
End of a stem or branch
Arrangement of leaves along the stem
Thin, flat structure attached to the stem or stalk by a petiole.
Attaches a blade to the stem.
Thin layer between the walls of two daughter cells
Primary Cell Wall
Composed of bundled microfibrils of cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Pectins
Secondary Cell Wall
Provides mechanical support necessary for large stems, contains lignin instead of pectin
Strong carbon complex resistant to water and animal digestion
A cluster of undifferentiated cells that allow a plant to develop organs throughout its lifetime
The supporting structure to the embryo proper resulting from asymmetrical division
"Seed leave" formed by embryo in the heart stage
Typically has a small central vacuole or none at all. Can differentiate once cell division stops into stomata, trichomes, or root hairs.
Leaf hairs that provide protection from insects and solar radiation
Made of cutin, secreted by above-ground epidermal cells. Limits water loss, reflects solar radiation, and serves as a barrier against pathogens.
lengthening of roots and shoots and the proliferation of new roots and shoots
Increase in girth typical of many gymnosperms and eudicots
Cell type that perpetuates the meristem, comparable to stem cells in animals.
Orchestrates primary growth, characterized by cell division followed by vertical elongation. Give rise to primary meristems
Orchestrates secondary growth, includes Vascular Cambium and Cork Cambium
Protects growing end of the root as it pushes through the soil. Secretes slime as lubricant
Zone of Division
The root pushes downward into the soil in this zone
Zone of Elongation
Newly formed cells are elongated to push the root farther into the soil in this Zone
Zone of Maturation
Cells begin differentiating in this Zone
Apical meristem that produces leaves
Clade consisting of most angiosperms, characterized by a taproot and two cotyldons (e.g. cacti, daisies)
Angiosperms with a single embryonic leaf, characterized by parallel leaves, fibrous roots (e.g. grasses, onion, fern)
Apical meristem found directly behind the root cap dormant until the root becomes damaged