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The 2 subcompartments of ECF
1. Plasma-fluid portion of the blood
2. Interstitial Fluid-fluid between tissue cells
How does water move?
according to osmotic gradients-from lesser osmolarity to an area of greater osmolarity
The one difference between the two extracellular fluid components
Plasma has more protein than interstitial fld
Filtrate is forced out of capillaries by?
and pulled back in by?
Filtrate is forced out of capillaries by hydrostatic pressure and pulled back in by colloid osmotic pressure
Three ways hypothalamic thirst center neurons are stimulated
osmoreceptors lose water by:
osmosis to the hypertonic ECF, activated by angiotensin II, by barorecptor inputs
What causes aquaporins to be inserted in the cell membranes of the collecting ducts?
The amount of water reabsorbed in the renal collecting ducts is ________ to ADH release
water loss from plasma results in inadequate blood volume, unable to maintain normal circulation
body fluids are excessively diluted, cells swollen...can result in cerebral edema
disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex, can result in severe cravings for salty foods
The cario baroreceptors sense changing arterial BP, prompting?
changes in sympathetic vasomotor activity
What is the effect of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide?
released when BP is high, vasodilation, inhibits renin, aldosterone and ADH release. Enhances sodium and water excretion-reduces BV & BP
Declining plasma levels of calcium stimulate the parathyroid gland to release PTH, increases calcium by targeting which organs?
Bones, Small Intestine, and Kidneys
3 ways acids are generated in the body
1. breakdown of phosphorus containing proteins
2. incomplete oxidation of fats or glucose
3. loading and transport of carbon dioxide in the blood
Phosphate Buffer system is effective in buffering ? Ineffective?
Effective buffering urine in ICF (due to high phosphate concentrations)
protein can function as either an acid or base depending on the pH of its environment
What two things active the respiratory center?
Hypercapnia--- medullary chemoreceptors
rising plasma H+ concentrations
To counteract acidosis, either one of two mechanisms may be used
1. Secreted H+ in the urine
2. NH4+ excreted in urine
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