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Concept Map - Genetics

20 Terms related to Genetics Excluding the defenition of Genetics itself
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Genetics
The key to understanding what makes each organism unique; the scientific study of heridity
Trait
Specific characteristic of an individual
Gene
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; is passed from parent to offspring
Allele
One of a number of different forms of a gene; variation of a gene
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene; the same traits
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a particular gene; different traits
Phenotype
Physical characteristics of an organism
Genotype
Genetic make-up of an organism; an expression of the genes that an organism has
Punnett Square
Diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross
Multiple Allele
A gene that has more than two alleles; more than two possible alleles for the trait; gives you many combinations of phenotypes and genotypes
Homologous
Term used to refer to chromosomes in which one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent
Principle of Dominance
Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
Gamete
Sex Cell
Fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
Independent Assortment
One of Mendel's principles that states that genes for a different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
Incomplete Dominance
Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele; neither trait is dominant over another one (The characteristics blend or mix.)
Codominance
Situation in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are completely expressed; both traits are expressed together
Zygote
Fertilized Egg
Haploid
Term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of genes
Gregor Mendel
An Austrian Monk; Breed and tested pea plants
A single pea plant can prodcue hundreds of offspring therefore it was easier for Mendel to use.
Probability
The likelihood that a particular event will occur.
Example: When flipping a coin there are two possible outcomes...heads or tails.