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If an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to its offspring, we say that this organism bred true with respect to that characteristic.
An allele that will not determine the phenotype unless the genotype is homozygous in that allele
Mendel's principles of genetics (use updated terminology)
1. The traits of an organism are determined by its genes.
2. Each organism has two alleles that make up the genotype for a given trait.
3. In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes ONLY ONE of its alleles to its offspring.
4. In each genotype, there is a dominant allele. If it exists in an organism, the phenotype is determined by that allele.
Change in chromosome structure
A situation in which a chromosome loses or gains genes during meiosis
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